FM 7-22.7(TC 22-6)




DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited

Sergeant of Riflemen1821

Sergeant Major of the Army1998




*FM 7-22.7 (TC 22-6)

Field Manual HeadquartersNo. 7-22.7 Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 23 December 2002

The ArmyNoncommissioned Officer Guide

Contents Page

FIGURES ......................................................................................iiiVIGNETTES ..................................................................................ivPREFACE ......................................................................................vCHARGE TO THE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER ......................viiTHE NCO VISION ........................................................................ viiiINTRODUCTION........................................................................... ixINTRODUCTORY HISTORICAL VIGNETTES ................................xii

CHAPTER 1 -- HISTORY AND BACKGROUND........................... 1-1History of the Army Noncommissioned Officer............................... 1-3Army Values ............................................................................. 1-22NCO Professional Development ................................................. 1-25The NCO Transition .................................................................. 1-32

CHAPTER 2 -- DUTIES, RESPONSIBILITIES ANDAUTHORITY OF THE NCO ......................................................... 2-1Assuming a Leadership Position .................................................. 2-3Duties, Responsibilities and Authority........................................... 2-4Inspections and Corrections....................................................... 2-10Noncommissioned, Commissioned and Warrant OfficerRelationships ............................................................................ 2-14The Noncommissioned Officer Support Channel ......................... 2-17NCO Ranks .............................................................................. 2-19

CHAPTER 3 -- LEADERSHIP...................................................... 3-1Learn.......................................................................................... 3-3Be – Know – Do .......................................................................... 3-4Discipline.................................................................................. 3-14Intended and Unintended Consequences ................................... 3-16Putting it Together..................................................................... 3-17

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.*This publication supersedes TC 22-6, 23 November 1990.


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CHAPTER 4 -- TRAINING............................................................4-1NCOs Lay the Foundation in Training............................................4-3Leader’s Role in Training..............................................................4-6Other Leader Concerns in Training..............................................4-12Assessment ..............................................................................4-16

CHAPTER 5 -- COUNSELING AND MENTORSHIP ......................5-1Leader’s Responsibility ................................................................5-3Effective Army Counseling Program ..............................................5-5Types of Developmental Counseling .............................................5-7The Counseling Session.............................................................5-13Mentorship ................................................................................5-16

APPENDIX A -- SERGEANT’S TIME TRAINING .......................... A-1APPENDIX B -- ARMY PROGRAMS ........................................... B-1APPENDIX C -- LEADER BOOK ................................................. C-1APPENDIX D -- INTERNET RESOURCES ................................... D-1APPENDIX E -- NCO READING LIST.......................................... E-1APPENDIX F -- NCO INDUCTION CEREMONY........................... F-1SOURCE NOTES ..................................................... Source Notes-1GLOSSARY .................................................................... Glossary-1BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................ Bibliography-1INDEX.................................................................................. Index-1NOTES ................................................................................Notes-1

This publication is available on theGeneral Dennis J. Reimer Training

And Doctrine Digital Library


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1-1. Army Training and Education Program ............................ 1-26

2-1. Task to Assume a Leadership Position................................... 2-3

2-2. Questions When Assuming a Leadership Position.................. 2-3

2-3. On-the-Spot Corrections Guidelines..................................... 2-11

2-4. On-the-Spot Correction Steps ............................................. 2-12

2-5. General Duties of Commissioned Officers ............................ 2-14

2-6. General Duties of Warrant Officers ...................................... 2-15

2-7. General Duties of Noncommissioned Officers....................... 2-15

3-1. The Army Leadership Framework .......................................... 3-2

3-2. Teambuilding Stages .......................................................... 3-13

4-1. Task Approval Matrix ............................................................ 4-6

5-1. Characteristics of Effective Counseling .................................. 5-4

5-2. Major Aspects of Counseling Process.................................... 5-6

5-3. Reception and Integration Counseling Points ......................... 5-9

5-4. Mentorship Development .................................................... 5-17

5-5. Mentorship Characteristics.................................................. 5-18


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Sergeant Patrick Gass and the Lewis and Clark Expedition..............................xii

Sergeant James Rissler in the Battle of Shahi-Kot.............................................xiii

Sergeant Brown at Redoubt # 10 ........................................................................ 1-5

Percival Lowe.......................................................................................................... 1-6

Sergeant William McKinley at Antietam .............................................................. 1-7

The 54th Massachusetts Assault on Fort Wagner............................................ 1-8

Buffalo Soldiers and Sergeant George Jordan.................................................. 1-9

Corporal Titus in the Boxer Rebellion ................................................................. 1-9

Sergeant Patrick Walsh in World War I.............................................................1-11

Staff Sergeant Kazuo Otani at Pieve Di St. Luce............................................1-12

Staff Sergeant John Sjogren at San Jose Hacienda......................................1-13

Sergeant Ola Mize at Outpost Harry..................................................................1-14

SFC Eugene Ashley at Lang Vei........................................................................1-15

MSG Gordon and SFC Shughart at Mogadishu..............................................1-18

SGT Christien Roberts in Kosovo ......................................................................1-20

CPL Rodolfo Hernandez on Hill 420 .................................................................1-25

SGT Park and the On-the-Spot Correction......................................................2-12

C Co. 3-504th PIR at Renacer Prison ................................................................3-15

The Deployment...................................................................................................3-16

CPL Sandy Jones in World War I......................................................................... 4-6

The 555th Parachute Infantry (Triple Nickles).................................................4-10

SSG Michael Duda in Desert Storm..................................................................4-15


FM 7-22.7



This Field Manual is dedicated to the men and women of the US ArmyNoncommissioned Officer Corps in the Active Component, the Army NationalGuard and the US Army Reserve – altogether America’s finest fightingmachine. Your soldiers depend on your guidance, training and leadership towin the Nation’s wars. Wear your stripes with pride and honor. You are –

“The Backbone of the Army.”

PURPOSEFM 7-22.7 provides the Army’s noncommissioned officers a guide for leading,supervising and caring for soldiers. While not all-inclusive nor intended as astand-alone document, the guide offers NCOs a ready reference for mostsituations.

SCOPEThe Army NCO Guide describes NCO duties, responsibilities and authorityand how they relate to those of warrant and commissioned officers. It alsodiscusses NCO leadership, counseling and mentorship and the NCO role intraining. Of particular use are the additional sources of information andassistance described in the manual.

APPLICABILITYThe Army NCO Guide provides information critical to the success of today’snoncommissioned officers. This manual is for all NCOs of the Army, bothactive and reserve component. While especially important for new NCOs, thisbook will be useful to junior officers as well. Every NCO will benefit fromreading and understanding FM 7-22.7.

ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATIONThe proponent for the publication is Headquarters, US Army Training andDoctrine Command (TRADOC). Send comments and recommendations onDA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) toCommandant, US Army Sergeants Major Academy, ATTN: ATSS-D, FortBliss, TX 79918-8002 or through the Sergeants Major Academy website

Unless stated otherwise, masculine nouns or pronouns do not refer exclusivelyto men.

This publication contains copyrighted material.


FM 7-22.7


ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe copyright owners listed here have granted permission to reproduce orparaphrase material from their works.

Depiction of “To Relieve Bastogne,” by Don Stivers, © Don Stivers, 1990.

Excerpt from Men Against Fire: The Problem of Battle Command in FutureWar, by S.L.A. Marshall, © Peter Smith, 1978.

The quotation by LTG Thomas J. Jackson in Chapter 1 is from Dictionary ofMilitary and Naval Quotations, edited by Robert Debs Heinl, © US NavalInstitute Press, 1988.

The quotation by CSM J. F. La Voie in Chapter 2 is from Guardians of theRepublic, by Ernest F. Fisher, Jr., © Ballantine Books, 1994.

Excerpt from GEN Matthew B. Ridgway, "Leadership," in MilitaryLeadership: In Pursuit of Excellence, edited by Robert L. Taylor and WilliamE. Rosenbach, © Westview Press, Inc., 1984.

Excerpt from The Doughboys: The Story of the AEF by Laurence Stallings, ©Harper & Row, 1963.

Excerpts from The Triple Nickles, by Bradley Biggs, © Archon Books, animprint of The Shoe String Press, Inc., 1986.

Excerpt from Top Sergeant: The Life and Times of Sergeant Major of theArmy William G. Bainbridge, by William G. Bainbridge, © Ballantine Books,1995.

Other sources of quotations and material used in examples are listed in theSource Notes.

Special thanks to CSM Gary L. Littrell (US Army, Retired), SGM Michael T.Lamb, SPC Michael J. Stone, SPC Ryan A. Swanson, and Mr. Roger Smith(3rd New Jersey Regiment) whose generous assistance helped make thismanual possible.


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Charge to the NoncommissionedOfficer

I will discharge carefully and diligently theduties of the grade to which I have beenpromoted and uphold the traditions and

standards of the Army.

I understand that soldiers of lesser rankare required to obey my lawful orders.Accordingly, I accept responsibility fortheir actions. As a noncommissioned

officer, I accept the charge to observe andfollow the orders and directions given bysupervisors acting according to the laws,

articles and rules governing the disciplineof the Army, I will correct conditions

detrimental to the readiness thereof. In sodoing, I will fulfill my greatest obligationas a leader and thereby confirm my status

as a noncommissioned officer.

____________________ ____________________COMMAND SERGEANT MAJOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER


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The NCO Vision

An NCO Corps, grounded in heritage,values and tradition, that embodies the

warrior ethos; values perpetual learning;and is capable of leading, training and

motivating soldiers.

We must always be an NCO Corps that- Leads by Example- Trains from Experience- Maintains and Enforces Standards- Takes care of Soldiers- Adapts to a Changing World

Effectively Counsels and Mentors SubordinatesMaintains an Outstanding Personal AppearanceDisciplined Leaders Produce Disciplined Soldiers

SMA Jack L. Tilley12th Sergeant Major of the Army


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IntroductionBy CSM Gary L. Littrell, US Army (ret.), MOH

I often think back to when I was a young NCO, a young buck sergeant in 1964at the ripe age of 19 years old. I remember asking myself what would it takefor me to be a great NCO? We didn’t have NCO Academies. We didn’t havenoncommissioned officer guides. We had the experience of our senior NCOsand we had the day to day task of asking ourselves whether we wanted to begood sergeants and if so what would it take to make us good sergeants. And Ithought the number one thing to becoming the best NCO I could be was to berespected. You see, respect is something that has to be earned. Respect is notissued to you with a set of orders and a set of stripes. Respect is something youearn by taking care of the soldiers that you train and supervise and prepare forcombat.

One of the first problems that I encountered as a young sergeant — and I knowmany NCOs today go through the same trials and tribulations I did — isrealizing the difference in being respected and being liked. I couldn’t definethe difference in being respected and being liked. It is human nature to want tobe liked, but we can never sacrifice respect for that. The respect you gainthrough properly training your soldiers to succeed and in ensuring they andtheir families are taken care of may not always make you popular, but it willearn their respect. It takes a unique leader to be both liked and genuinelyrespected. Never confuse the two and never sacrifice respect because you wantyour soldiers to like you. It is far more important to consistently do the rightthing.

You will earn your soldiers’ respect by ensuring they are trained in all aspectsof their job. Individual training is sergeant’s business. I have always had asaying that we as NCOs deprive a soldier of his basic right to live if we sendthat soldier into combat without proper training. Basic soldier skills areimportant to all, not just to infantrymen or other combat arms soldiers, but alsoto mechanics, cooks or clerks – they, too, must be proficient in basic soldierskills. If a soldier goes into combat and these skills are weak, you as a sergeanthave deprived that soldier of his basic right to live. He was untrained and hedied.

We must never forget that the primary duties of a sergeant are to train and takecare of that soldier’s every need. A good NCO must know his soldiers insideand out. He must know their weaknesses and strengths. He must know thelevel of training of each individual soldier and if that soldier can work wellwith others, especially when they are placed in a very stressful situation – likecombat.


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Soldiers will make mistakes in training but be careful not to criticize them tooharshly for those honest mistakes. Mistakes happen in training — they aresupposed to. Always compliment your troops in public, but if you have tocorrect them on a serious mistake do it in private. A mistake made in trainingcan benefit everyone as long as you don’t embarrass the soldier. Figure outwhat happened and why in the AAR – demand complete honesty – but thencorrect the mistake and train to standard.

A good leader cannot let a soldier do something wrong and not make an on-the-spot correction. If a soldier does something wrong and he knows that yousaw him, he thinks it wasn’t wrong because you didn’t correct him or that youdon’t really care about him – either way that soldier is less effective anddiscipline suffers.

As a noncommissioned officer, we must always lead by example. And just asimportant we must never have double standards. We can’t have a set ofstandards for ourselves and fellow noncommissioned officers and a differentset of standards for our soldiers. We have got to lead by example, always upfront and we can never ask a soldier to do something that we can’t or will notdo. Double standards will ruin the morale of your unit very, very rapidly. Haveone set of standards for all and everyone maintains that same, strong set ofstandards.

This FM has a lot of information for NCOs of all ranks. It isn’t the only bookyou will ever need but it can help direct your efforts and probably point you inthe right direction in most situations. You’ll see many historical referenceshere. History can teach us much. Read about our Army’s past and the NCOswho led its soldiers – you will find that their experience has relevance yettoday.

Lead your soldiers with pride. Train them well and care for their needs as bestyou can. Ask senior NCOs for advice if you encounter a problem you don’tknow how to solve.

You are the defenders of our Nation and the caretakers of its future.


FM 7-22.7



CSM (then SFC) Gary L. Littrell (US Army, retired):

In April 1970, then SFC Gary L. Littrell, while assigned to US MilitaryAssistance Command, Vietnam, Advisory Team 21, distinguished himselfwhile serving as a Light Weapons Infantry Adviser with the 23rd Battalion, 2nd

Ranger Group, Republic Of Vietnam Army, near Dak Seang. Afterestablishing a defensive perimeter on a hill on 4 April the battalion wassubjected to an intense enemy mortar attack that killed the Vietnamesecommander, one adviser and seriously wounded all the advisers except SFcl*ttrell. During the ensuing four days, SFC Littrell exhibited near superhumanendurance as he single-handedly bolstered the besieged battalion.

Repeatedly abandoning positions of relative safety, he directed artillery and airsupport by day and marked the unit's location by night, despite the heavy,concentrated enemy fire. His dauntless will instilled in the men of the 23rd

Battalion a deep desire to resist. The battalion repulsed assault after assault asthe soldiers responded to the extraordinary leadership and personal exampleexhibited by SFC Littrell. He continuously moved to those points mostseriously threatened by the enemy, redistributed ammunition, strengthenedfaltering defenses, cared for the wounded and shouted encouragement to theVietnamese in their own language.

When the beleaguered battalion was finally ordered to withdraw, itencountered numerous ambushes. SFC Littrell repeatedly preventedwidespread disorder by directing air strikes to within 50 meters of theirposition. Through his indomitable courage and complete disregard for hissafety, he averted excessive loss of life and injury to the members of thebattalion. Over an extended period of time, SFC Littrell sustainedextraordinary courage and selflessness at the risk of his life above and beyondthe call of duty. His unyielding will, perseverance and courage remain shiningexamples of the warrior ethos in action.


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Introductory Historical Vignettes

SERGEANT PATRICK GASS AND THE LEWIS ANDCLARK EXPEDITIONPatrick Gass was born on 12 June 1771 near Falling Springs, Pennsylvania. Bythe time he reached the age of forty, he had participated in Indian Wars,journeyed to the Pacific and back with Lewis and Clark, fought in the War of1812 and displayed extreme valor in the battle of Lundy's Lane.

In 1791, Patrick’s father was drafted in the militia protecting the Wellsburg,West Virginia area. Patrick volunteered to go in his father's place. This wasPatrick's first taste of military life. He saw little action in the following monthsand soon returned home, but it was the start to a long military career.

For the next seven years, Gass was not in the military. Instead, he worked as acarpenter until his enlistment with the 19th Regiment in May 1799. Gassbecame a sergeant and served in various locations until the autumn of 1803.Captain Meriwether Lewis was looking for recruits for his expedition into theNorthwest. Sergeant Gass quickly volunteered. His commander objected, notwanting to lose both a good soldier and carpenter. However, Sergeant Gasspersisted and Captain Lewis accepted his enlistment.

Sergeant Gass, upon leaving his unit, became a private again. He started thejourney with Lewis and Clark as one of a number of privates. The threesergeants in the Expedition were John Ordway, Nathaniel Pryor and CharlesFloyd.

As the expedition made its way up the Missouri, Sergeant Charles Floyd fell illwith bilious colic. On 20 August 1804, Sergeant Floyd died and was buriedalong the river's bluff. Six days later, Captain Clark ordered a vote to replaceFloyd. The men chose privates Gass, Bratton and Gibson as candidates. In thefirst US election west of the Mississippi, Gass became a sergeant.

Sergeant Gass helped shepherd his men across the continent and back. Despitedifficult conditions, Sergeant Gass led his men to complete the journey withno further loss. On more than one occasion Sergeant Gass’ actions allowed theexpedition to continue, most notable when he arrived at camp in time to decidethe outcome of a battle the main group had become involved in. TheExpedition explored the upper Missouri and Northwest, recording the people,animals and plant life of the area. Sergeant Gass was one of those who kept adetailed journal.


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Though now a famous explorer, Sergeant Gass remained in the Army servingat Kaskaskia, Illinois. Shortly before the War of 1812, he joined GeneralAndrew Jackson in fighting the Creek Indians. After completing that action,Gass enlisted once again in the regular army. He then served at Fort Massac in1813 and at Pittsburgh in 1814. He took part in the assault on Fort Erie andserved with the 21st Infantry at Lundy's Lane. Ultimately, he received his finaldischarge at Sackett's Harbor in June 1815.

At the age of forty, Sergeant Gass returned to Wellsburg, West Virginia tospend the rest of his life. He lived for nearly forty more years, becoming theoldest survivor of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Sergeant Patrick Gassshowed the value of a good NCO – to the future of an entire Nation.

SERGEANT JAMES RISSLER IN THE BATTLE OFSHAHI-KOT -- “THE 18-HOUR MIRACLE”At 0300 hours on 2 March 2002, C Company, 1st Battalion, 87th Infantrywalked about a mile and a half to the flight line in full gortex, poly-pro andfull field uniform. They sat in chalk order until their loading time of 0500hours. Their flight to LZ 13A gave them a touch down time of 0600 hours.SGT James Rissler was a Senior Medic of an Advanced Trauma Life Support(ATLS) team attached to the Infantry Company. According to Rissler, theyloaded one of the CH-47s with 34 packs and rucks. The flight was to take themfrom Bagram Airbase at 4,200 feet to LZ 13A in Shahi-Kot valley to justoutside the city of Marzak at 10,500 feet in just an hour's time. Their missionset up blocking positions outside the city of Marzak while Zia forces pushedthe Taliban and Al-Qaeda forces in their direction.

The flight left at 0500 hours as planned and touched down at LZ 13A at 0600hours. When the chopper touched down, the unit hastily split and went off tothe left and right sides of the aircraft and soldiers assumed prone positions.Once the aircraft had taken off, the unit immediately started receiving smallarms fire. The problem was that no one could locate the direction of fire, sothey dropped their rucks and ran up the side of a small ridge. Soon realizingthat the direction of fire was coming from the same side they were on, they ranto the top of the ridge to the other side to take cover. Once Sergeant Risslerreached the top of the ridge, an RPG round exploded about 10 feet from himand a piece of shrapnel hit him in the knee.

Once they all got to the other side, the unit consolidated and startedconstructing fighting positions. Soldiers were placed on a small observationpost to the right of the unit, but were quickly targeted by Mortar fire also. TheMortars adjusted fire and the unit took 13 casualties by the time the secondround hit. The unit then realized that the enemy forces were running out of the


FM 7-22.7


city of Marzak to surround them, which meant that they would now be takingfire from three sides, being targeted by Mortar fire. Sergeant Rissler set up aCommand and Control Post at the bottom of the ridge and it was quicklytargeted. As the enemy continued to adjust fire on them, Sergeant Rissler andother soldiers would drag as many casualties up and down the ridge aspossible, covering their bodies with theirs to protect them as the roundsdetonated.

While moving the soldiers up and down the hill, Sergeant Rissler waswounded a second time, taking fragments in the hand. Both times he waswounded he treated himself. Moving the injured soldiers up and down theridge was only aggravating the injuries; consequently, each time a soldier wasmoved, controlling of bleeding and treatment of wound started all over again.The Mortar fire would slow down when fire missions were called in from theF-16s and AC 130s, allowing Sergeant Rissler and other soldiers to dig pits inthe center of the valley to put the patients in and using dirt or whatevermaterials found to cover the wounded. All patients were stabilized and the unitlay in their positions returning fire until nightfall.

As night started to set in, Sergeant Rissler knew that it would be getting verycold soon. With the amount of blood lost through the day and the rapiddecrease in temperature the patients would probably go into shock. SoSergeant Rissler used tape to repair the wounded soldiers’ clothing andcovered the soldiers with whatever he had to prevent shock. Then he and othersoldiers lay on the wounded patients to maintain their body temperature.Finally, when night fell MEDEVAC could get to the site. The first helicopterreceived two Mortar rounds and heavy small arms fire. Another AC-130 wascalled in to cover the evacuation. In all, 25 wounded were evacuated with nofatalities. Around 0200 hours the next morning, Sergeant Rissler and the restof the unit were extracted.



Chapter 1

History and Background

Since 14 June 1775, soldiers have defended freedom and are fightingon behalf of the American people for various missions. All of our forces– heavy and light, Active, Guard and Reserve – share the heritage ofthe Continental Army.

The Army’s Birthday celebrates this great institution and upon reflectiona simple truth arises: there is no greater profession than the Professionof Arms and no greater job than ours – serving on point for our Nation.Thanks to American Soldiers, freedom’s light shines as a beaconthroughout the world.

Your unit, organization and or installation may celebrate the Army’sBirthday and Flag Day together. For example, some have the youngestand oldest soldier attend the ceremony to cut the cake and be a part ofthe retreat ceremony as the guest speaker explains this traditionalevent.

The Army has courageously fought our country’s wars and servedhonorably in peace for over two centuries. We can all be justifiablyproud of the Army’s achievements – a distinguished history of serviceto the Nation. Ever since the American Revolution, through the trial ofthe Civil War; from the trenches of World War I to the beaches ofNormandy and the island battles in the Pacific of World War II; from thefrozen mountains of Korea to the sweltering paddies of Vietnam; fromGrenada and Panama to the sands of Kuwait and Iraq and on theplains and mountains of Afghanistan: Soldiers have upheld democracyand liberty and justice for all.

Throughout that history of service, the key to the Army’s success is ourflexibility and willingness to change, to meet the world as it is – withoutaltering the core competencies that make the Army the best fightingforce in the world. You are the best Army in the world. You representwhat is most noble about our Nation: liberty, freedom and unity. As asymbol of our transformed Army, you are and will continue to be,respected by your allies, feared by your opponents and esteemed bythe American people. Your courage, dedication to duty and selflessservice to the Nation will remain the hallmark you, the Soldiers of theUnited States Army, carry into the 21st Century.


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As a leader, as a trainer and as a teacher, the NCO embodiesthe Army’s past, present and future

History of the Army Noncommissioned Officer ........................1-3The Revolution to the Civil War..............................................1-3The Civil War to World War 1..................................................1-7The World Wars and Containment ........................................1-11Post-Vietnam and the Volunteer Army..................................1-16Contemporary Operational Environment ..............................1-20Army Transformation............................................................1-21

Army Values.............................................................................1-22Loyalty..................................................................................1-22Duty ......................................................................................1-23Respect.................................................................................1-23Selfless Service ....................................................................1-24Honor....................................................................................1-24Integrity ................................................................................1-24Personal Courage .................................................................1-25

NCO Professional Development ..............................................1-26The NCO Education System .................................................1-26Operational Assignments .....................................................1-28NCODP..................................................................................1-29Self-development .................................................................1-29

The NCO Transition..................................................................1-32

For more information on the history of the US Army NoncommissionedOfficer, see Appendix C, The NCO Professional Reading List.

For more information on Army Values, see FM 6-22 (22-100) ArmyLeadership, Chapter 2.

For more information on US Army NCO professional development, seeDA PAM 600-25, “The US Army NCO Professional Development Guide.”



History and Background


HISTORY OF THE ARMY NONCOMMISSIONEDOFFICER1-1. You are a leader in the same Army that persevered at Valley Forge, heldits ground at the Little Round Top, turned the tide of a war at St. Mihiel andbegan the liberation of a continent at Omaha Beach. You lead soldiers fromthe same Army that burst out of the Pusan Perimeter, won against enormousodds at the Ia Drang Valley, fought with determination at Mogadishu andrelieved terrible misery in Rwanda. Leaders like you and soldiers like yoursconducted intense combat operations in Afghanistan while only a shortdistance away others supported that nation’s rebuilding and still others foughtfires in the northwestern US. Throughout the history of the Army the NCO hasbeen there, leading soldiers in battle and training them in peacetime, leadingby example and always, always – out front.


1-2. The history of the United States Army and of the noncommissionedofficer began in 1775 with the birth of the Continental Army . The Americannoncommissioned officer did not copy the British. He, like the AmericanArmy itself, blended traditions of the French, British and Prussian armies into


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a uniquely American institution. As the years progressed, the Americanpolitical system, with its disdain for the aristocracy, social attitudes and thevast westward expanses, further removed the US Army noncommissionedofficer from his European counterparts and created a truly Americannoncommissioned officer.

“Understanding the history of our profession and our corps is at the heart ofbeing a soldier. Every soldier needs to learn about our heritage andtraditions, it is the essence of who we are.”

CSM Cynthia Pritchett

The Revolution

1-3. In the early days of the American Revolution, little standardization ofNCO duties or responsibilities existed. In 1778, during the long hard winter atValley Forge, Inspector General Friedrich von Steuben standardized NCOduties and responsibilities in his Regulations for the Order and Discipline ofthe Troops of the United States (printed in 1779). His work, commonly calledthe Blue Book, set down the duties and responsibilities for corporals,sergeants, first sergeants, quartermaster sergeants and sergeants major, whichwere the NCO ranks of the period. The Blue Book also emphasized theimportance of selecting quality soldiers for NCO positions and served a wholegeneration of soldiers as the primary regulation for the Army for 30 years. Infact, part of Von Steuben’s Blue Book is still with us in FM 22-5, Drill andCeremonies and other publications.

1-4. Von Steuben specified duties of the noncommissioned officer. TheSergeant Major served as the assistant to the regimental adjutant, keepingrosters, forming details and handling matters concerning the "interiormanagement and discipline of the regiment." The Sergeant Major also served“at the head of the noncommissioned officers.” The Quartermaster Sergeantassisted the regimental quartermaster, assuming his duties in thequartermaster's absence and supervising the proper loading and transport of theregiment's baggage when on march. The First Sergeant enforced discipline andencouraged duty among troops, maintaining the duty roster, making morningreport to the company commander and keeping the company descriptive book.This document listed the name, age, height, place of birth and prior occupationof every enlisted man in the unit.

1-5. The day-to-day business of sergeants and corporals included many roles.Sergeants and Corporals instructed recruits in all matters of military training,including the order of their behavior in regard to neatness and sanitation. Theyquelled disturbances and punished perpetrators. They forwarded sick lists tothe First Sergeant. In battle, NCOs closed the gaps occasioned by casualties,encouraged men to stand their ground and to fire rapidly and accurately. Thedevelopment of a strong NCO Corps helped sustain the Continental Army


History and Background


through severe hardships to final victory. Von Steuben’s regulationsestablished the foundation for NCO duties and responsibilities from 1778 tothe present.

1-6. During the early stages of the American Revolution the typicalContinental Army NCO wore an epaulet to signify his rank. Corporals woregreen and sergeants wore red epaulets. After 1779, sergeants wore twoepaulets, while corporals retained a single epaulet. From the AmericanRevolution to World War II the noncommissioned officer received hispromotion from the regimental commander. Entire careers were often spentwithin one regiment. If a man transferred from one regiment to the next, he didnot take his rank with him. No noncommissioned officer could transfer ingrade from one regiment to another without the permission of the General inChief of the Army; this was rarely done. Without permanent promotions ofindividuals, stripes stayed with the regiment.

Sergeant Brown at Redoubt Number 10

On the 14th of October, 1781, Sergeant William Brown, during the all-important siege of Yorktown, led the advance party, known in thosedays as a ‘forlorn hope,’ against Redoubt Number 10 in the Britishdefenses. Sergeant Brown declined to wait for sappers to clear theabatis that ringed the objective or to breach the picket-like fraise thatblocked the way up the slope to the British position. Instead, he led hissoldiers over and through these obstructions to enter the redoubt in asurprise assault. Using only their bayonets, the Americans capturedthe position within ten minutes. Sergeant Brown was among thecasualties, with a bayonet wound in the hand.

The Purple Heart

1-7. Three NCOs received special recognition for acts of heroism during theAmerican Revolution. These men, Sergeant Elijah Churchill, SergeantWilliam Brown and Sergeant Daniel Bissell, received the Badge of MilitaryMerit, a purple heart with a floral border and the word "merit" inscribed acrossthe center. In practice this award was the precursor to the Medal of Honorintroduced during the Civil War. After a long period of disuse, Badge ofMilitary Merit was reinstituted in 1932 as the Purple Heart and is a decorationfor members of the armed forces wounded or killed in action or as a result of aterrorist attack.

Rank Insignia

1-8. In 1821 the War Department made the first reference to noncommissionedofficer chevrons. A General Order directed that sergeants major andquartermaster sergeants wear a worsted chevron on each arm above the elbow;sergeants and senior musicians, one on each arm below the elbow; andcorporals, one on the right arm above the elbow. This practice ended in 1829


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but returned periodically and became a permanent part of the NCO’s uniformbefore the Civil War.

1-9. In 1825 the Army established a systematic method for selectingnoncommissioned officers. The appointment of regimental and companynoncommissioned officers remained the prerogative of the regimentalcommander. Usually regimental commanders would accept the companycommander's recommendations for company NCOs unless there wereoverriding considerations. The Abstract of Infantry Tactics, published in 1829,provided instructions for training noncommissioned officers. The purpose ofthis instruction was to ensure that all NCOs possessed "an accurate knowledgeof the exercise and use of their firelocks, of the manual exercise of the soldierand of the firings and marchings."

Percival Lowe

In October 1849, a young Massachusetts farm boy named PercivalLowe joined the US Army's Dragoons. Having read Fremont'sNarrative of 1843-1844 and other Army adventures, he felt that fiveyears of life in the west would round out his education. Lowe wasintelligent, well educated and strong, which made him an ideal soldierfor the years ahead.

During the next few months Lowe proved himself as a soldier. Helearned quickly how to keep his horse in sound condition whilecampaigning. He also learned the ways of the Plains and the variousIndian tribes that lived upon it. More than anything, however, helearned about the individual soldiers in his unit and how to lead them.He was promoted to corporal, then sergeant and in June of 1851, alittle over two years after he had enlisted, Lowe became first sergeantof his company. Two years after he made first sergeant in 1853, Loweviewed whiskey as the major source of discipline problems for enlistedmen. He talked with other noncommissioned officers about this andcautioned each to give personal attention to his men to ensure theywere not drinking to excess.

Sometimes Lowe would lock drunken soldiers in a storeroom until theysobered up. Offenders received extra duty as punishment. Lowe andthe noncommissioned officers of the company established the"company court-martial" (not recognized by Army regulations). Thisallowed the noncommissioned officers to enforce discipline, for thebreaking of minor regulations, without lengthy proceedings. In thedays before the summary court martial, it proved effective to disciplinea man by the company court-martial and avoided ruining his career bybringing him before three officers of the regiment.

1-10. Field officers and the adjutant frequently assembled noncommissionedofficers for both practical and theoretical instruction. Furthermore, fieldofficers ensured that company officers provided proper instruction to theirnoncommissioned officers. The sergeant major assisted in instructing


History and Background


sergeants and corporals of the regiment. Newly promoted corporals andsergeants of the company received instruction from the First Sergeant. Thefirst sergeant of that time, like today, was a key person in the maintenance ofmilitary discipline.


The Civil War

1-11. During the 1850's major changes occurred in US Army weaponry.Inventors developed and refined the percussion cap and rifled weapons.Weapons like the Sharps carbine added greatly to fire power and accuracy.The increased lethality of weapons did not immediately result in differenttactics. The huge numbers of casualties in the American Civil War proved thattechnological advances must result in changes to battlefield tactics.Operationally, the Civil War marked a distinct change in warfare. No longerwas it sufficient to defeat an enemy’s army in the field. It was necessary todestroy the enemy’s will and capacity to resist through military, economic andpolitical means. This became the concept of total war. The war required alarge number of draftees and unprecedented quantities of supplies.

Sergeant William McKinley at Antietam

William McKinley enlisted in Colonel (later President) Rutherford B.Hayes’ 23rd Ohio Infantry Regiment in June, 1861. During the battle ofAntietam on 17 September 1862 Commissary Sergeant McKinley wasin the rear in charge of his unit’s supplies. The men had eaten only ascanty breakfast and McKinley knew as the day wore on that theBuckeye soldiers were growing weaker.

Gathering some stragglers, Sergeant McKinley led two mule teamswith wagons of rations and hot coffee into the thick of battle. Workinghis way over rough ground under fire, McKinley ignored repeatedwarnings to retreat. He lost one team of mules to enemy fire but didnot return to the rear of the brigade until his fellow soldiers had beenproperly fed under adverse combat conditions. McKinley later was acongressman, governor and was elected the 25th President of theUnited States in 1896.

1-12. During the Civil War, noncommissioned officers led the lines ofskirmishers that preceded and followed each major unit. NCOs also carried theflags and regimental colors of their units. This deadly task was crucial tomaintain regimental alignment and for commanders to observe their units onthe field. As the war progressed, organizational and tactical changes led theArmy to employ more open battle formations. These changes further enhancedthe combat leadership role of the noncommissioned officer. New technologyshaped the Army during the Civil War: railroads, telegraph communications,steamships, balloons and other innovations. These innovations would laterimpact the noncommissioned officer rank structure and pay.


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1-13. Since its founding on 14 June 1775, the Army normally expanded inwartime with volunteers, with the professional soldiers forming the basis forexpansion. The Civil War in particular brought a huge increase in the numberof volunteer soldiers. This policy endured to some extent until worldcommitments and the stationing of troops overseas in the 20th centuryrequired the Nation to maintain a strong professional force.

The 54th Massachusetts Assault on Fort Wagner

The 54th Massachusetts Regiment was selected to lead the attackagainst Fort Wagner, one of the fortifications protecting CharlestonHarbor from seaborne assault. Although the battle of Fort Wagner wasminor compared to the Civil War's major battles, it clearlydemonstrated to the Nation that valor and commitment was presentthroughout its entire Army.

At twilight on 18 July 1863 the 54th led two Union brigades throughthe Carolina low country and across a sandy beach toward the fort…As they approached, the Confederates let loose volley after volley ofmusket-fire into the soldiers. Although men fell left and right, the bulkof the 54th managed to charge onto the parapets of the fort, climbingdown into it to fight hand to hand. The 54th was able to hold its groundfor an hour before finally being pushed back. But even in the tumult,the 54th's gallantry showed. Sergeant William H. Carney, severelywounded, still managed to save the 54th's battle flag and kneel with iton the crest of the fort as the battle raged around him. When theattack ended, Carney carried the flag to safety. For this action,Sergeant Carney became the first African-American to receive theMedal of Honor.

Frederick Douglass' son Lewis wrote to his sweetheart shortly afterthe battle, "This regiment has established itself as a fightingregiment... not a man flinched, though it was a trying time...Remember if I die, I die in a good cause."

Although the 54th lost over 50 percent of its men, including Col. Shaw,the glory of the regiment and this battle was honored by the Nationboth during the Civil War and in the 130 years since.

1-14. In the post-Civil War era the Artillery School at Fort Monroe reopenedto train both officers and noncommissioned officers. In 1870 the Signal Corpsestablished a school for training officers and noncommissioned officers.Because both the Artillery and the Signal Corps required soldiers to haveadvanced technical knowledge to operate complex equipment and instruments,these were the first schools established. Efforts to provide advanced educationfor noncommissioned officers in other less technical fields, however, failed toattract supporters. Army leaders thought experience and not the classroommade a good NCO.


History and Background


Military Life on the Frontier1-15. During the Indian Wars period, enlisted men lived in spartan barrackswith corporals and privates in one large room. Sergeants lived separately fromtheir men in small cubicles of their own adjacent to the men's sleepingquarters. This gave enlisted men a sense of comradeship, but allowed littleprivacy.

Buffalo Soldiers and Sergeant George Jordan

African-American soldiers of this period were often referred to asBuffalo Soldiers . The units they served in were the 9th and 10thCavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry. These troops provided 20years of continuous frontier service. They campaigned in the southernplains, in west Texas, in the Apache lands and against the Sioux.Sergeant George Jordan, a Buffalo Soldier, won the Medal of Honorfor actions during the campaign against the Apache leader Victorio.Sergeant Jordan led a 25-man unit to Tularosa, New Mexico, to staveoff a coming attack. Standing firm against 200-300 Apaches, SergeantJordan and his men prevented the town's destruction.

1-16. During the 1870s the Army discouraged enlisted men from marrying.Regulations limited the number of married enlisted men in the Army andrequired special permission to marry. Those men who did marry withoutpermission could be charged with insubordination. They could not live in posthousing or receive other entitlements. Still, nature proved stronger than Armydesires or regulations. Marriages occurred and posts became communities.

1-17. Barracks life in the 1890s was simple, with card games, dime novels andother amusem*nts filling idle time. Footlockers contained personalpossessions, along with military clothing and equipment. Soldiers during thisperiod maintained handbooks that contained a variety of information,including sections entitled, "Extracts from Army Regulations of 1895,""Examination of Enlisted Men for Promotion," "Take Care of Your Health,""Extracts from Articles of War," and others. In the back there were threesections for the soldier to fill in: "Clothing Account," "Military Service," and"Last Will and Testament.” Soldiers carried these handbooks for a number ofyears and provided an accurate record of the important events in his Army life.

Corporal Titus in the Boxer Rebellion

In the summer of 1900 American troops joined soldiers from sevenother nations to rescue citizens besieged in their embassies in thewalled city of Peking during an outbreak of violence directed atforeigners in China. On 14 August, when his commander asked for avolunteer to scale the east wall of the city without the aid of ropes orladders, Musician Corporal Calvin P. Titus said, “I’ll try, sir.” Underenemy fire Corporal Titus successfully climbed the wall by way ofjagged holes in its surface. His company followed his lead up the walland into the city. Titus received the Medal of Honor.


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1-18. The increase of technology which accompanied modernization greatlyaffected the NCO Corps during the last half of the 19th Century. The numberof NCO ranks grew rapidly; each new advent of technology created anotherpay grade. The Army was forced to compete with industry for technicalworkers. In 1908 Congress approved a pay bill which rewarded those intechnical fields in order to retain their services. Combat soldiers were not sofortunate. A Master Electrician in the Coast Artillery made $75-84 per month,while an Infantry Battalion Sergeant Major lived on $25-34 per month.Compare that with a Sergeant of the Signal Corps ($34 - $43 per month).

Enlisted Retirement

1-19. In 1885 Congress authorized voluntary retirement for enlisted soldiers.The system allowed a soldier to retire after 30 years of service with three-quarters of his active duty pay and allowances. This remained relativelyunchanged until 1945 when enlisted personnel could retire after 20 years ofservice with half pay. In 1948 Congress authorized retirement for careermembers of the Reserve and National Guard. Military retirement pay is not apension, but rather is delayed compensation for completing 20 or more yearsof active military service. It not only provides an incentive for soldiers tocomplete 20 years of service, but also creates a backup pool of experiencedpersonnel in the event of a national emergency.

NCO Guide

1-20. The Army began to explicitly define NCO duties during the late 19th andearly 20th centuries. The five or six pages of instructions provided by vonSteuben's Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the UnitedStates in 1778 grew to 417 pages in the 1909 Noncommissioned OfficersManual . While an unofficial publication, it was widely used and the chaptersdescribing the duties of the First Sergeant and Sergeant Major includedcommon forms, a description of duties, what should and should not be doneand customs of the service. The Noncommissioned Officers Manual included achapter on discipline that stressed the role of punishment in achievingdiscipline. The manual stated that the purpose of punishment was to preventthe commission of offenses and to reform the offender. However, this sectionrepeatedly stressed that treatment of subordinates should be uniform, just andin no way humiliating.

The Modern Rank Insignia

1-21. In 1902 the NCO symbol of rank, the chevron, rotated to what we wouldtoday call point up and became smaller in size. Though many stories exist asto why the chevron's direction changed, the most probable reason was simplythat it looked better. Clothing had become more form fitting, creating narrowersleeves; in fact, the 10-inch chevron of the 1880s would have wrappedcompletely around the sleeve of a 1902 uniform.


History and Background



World War 1

1-22. World War I required the training of four million men, one million ofwhich would go overseas. Corporals were the primary trainers during thisperiod, teaching lessons that emphasized weapons and daytime maneuvers.Training included twelve hours devoted to the proper use of the gas mask anda trip to the gas chamber. After viewing the differences in American andforeign NCO prestige, American Commanding General John J. Pershingsuggested the establishment of special schools for sergeants and separate NCOmesses. The performance of noncommissioned officers in the AmericanExpeditionary Force seemed to validate these changes.

Sergeant Patrick Walsh in World War I

When the United States entered World War I in 1917, SergeantPatrick Walsh already had thirty-one years of service and was eligibleto retire. Instead, he chose to remain with his unit when it left forFrance. On 1 March 1918, near Seicheprey, Sergeant Walsh followedhis company commander through a severe barrage to the first line oftrenches to attack. When the company commander was killed,Sergeant Walsh assumed command and initiated an assault thatresulted in heavy enemy losses. He received the DistinguishedService Cross for his demonstration of leadership.

1-23. In 1922 the Army scheduled 1,600 noncommissioned officers for gradereductions. Although this was necessary to reduce the total force and savemoney, it caused severe hardships for many noncommissioned officers,especially those with families. Also, post-World War I budget reductions andthe Great Depression led to irregularities in pay: often the soldier receivedonly half his pay, or half his pay in money and half in consumer goods or food.

1-24. The rapid pace and acceptance of technology during the late 1930scaused the Army to create special “technician” ranks in grades 3, 4, & 5 (CPL,SGT & SSG), with chevrons marked with a “T.” This led to an increase inpromotions among technical personnel. The technician ranks ended in 1948,but they later reappeared as ‘specialists’ in 1955.

1-25. The typical First Sergeant of this period carried his administrative filesin his pocket—a black book. The book contained the names of everyone in thecompany and their professional history (AWOLs, work habits, promotions,etc.). The book passed from first sergeant to first sergeant, staying within thecompany and providing the unit with a historical document. The first sergeantaccompanied men on runs, the drill field, training, or the firing range. He wasalways at the forefront of everything the company did.


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World War 2

1-26. With the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the United Statesfound itself in another major war. Mobilization greatly increased the numbersof Army noncommissioned officers. Ironically, mobilization, combined withother factors, created a staggering growth in the percentage ofnoncommissioned officers to total forces. The proportion of noncommissionedofficers in the Army increased from 20 percent of the enlisted ranks in 1941,to nearly 50 percent in 1945, resulting in reduced prestige for manynoncommissioned officer ranks. Coupled with this growth in numbers theeight-man infantry squad increased to twelve, with the sergeant then staffsergeant, replacing the corporal as its leader. The rank of corporal came tomean very little, even though he was in theory and by tradition a combatleader.

Staff Sergeant Kazuo Otani at Pieve Di St. Luce

World War II witnessed a number of heroic deeds by NCOs. Anexample was the action of Staff Sergeant Kazuo Otani on 15 July1944, near Pieve Di St. Luce, Italy. Advancing to attack a hillobjective, Staff Sergeant Otani’s platoon became pinned down in awheat field by concentrated fire from enemy machine gun and sniperpositions. Realizing the danger confronting his platoon, Staff SergeantOtani left his cover and shot and killed a sniper who was firing withdeadly effect upon the platoon. Followed by a steady stream ofmachine gun bullets, Staff Sergeant Otani then dashed across theopen wheat field toward the foot of a cliff, and directed his men tocrawl to the cover of the cliff.

When the movement of the platoon drew heavy enemy fire, he dashedalong the cliff toward the left flank, exposing himself to enemy fire. Byattracting the attention of the enemy, he enabled the men closest tothe cliff to reach cover. Organizing these men to guard againstpossible enemy counterattack, Staff Sergeant Otani again made hisway across the open field, shouting instructions to the stranded menwhile continuing to draw enemy fire. Reaching the rear of the platoonposition, he took partial cover in a shallow ditch and directed coveringfire for the men who had begun to move forward. At this point, one ofhis men became seriously wounded. Ordering his men to remainunder cover, Staff Sergeant Otani crawled to the wounded soldier whowas lying on open ground in full view of the enemy. Dragging thewounded soldier to a shallow ditch, Staff Sergeant Otani proceeded torender first aid treatment, but was mortally wounded by machine gunfire.

1-27. Basic training in World War II focused on hands-on experience insteadof the classroom. NCOs conducted all training for soldiers. After basictraining, a soldier went to his unit where his individual training continued. Themajor problem was that the rapid expansion of the Army had led to aproportionate decrease in experienced men in the noncommissioned officer


History and Background


ranks. Making this condition worse was the practice of quickly advancing inrank soldiers who showed potential while combat losses reduced the numberof experienced NCOs.

1-28. Fighting in the Pacific and Europe required large numbers of men.Millions of men enlisted and America drafted millions more. Still the Armysuffered from manpower shortages. In 1942 the Army formally added womento its ranks. By 1945 over 90,000 women had enlisted in the Army. Womenserved in administrative, technical, motor vehicle, food, supply,communications, mechanical and electrical positions during the war. After thewar women continued to serve in a variety of roles in the Army. As a result ofthe continued growth of technology, a new emphasis on education began in thepost-World War II era. This emphasis encouraged the young soldier to becomebetter educated in order to advance in rank.

Staff Sergeant John Sjogren at San Jose Hacienda

On 23 May 1945, Company I, 160th Infantry was conducting an attacknear San Jose Hacienda in the Philippine Islands. The attack wasagainst a high precipitous ridge defended by a company of enemyriflemen, who were entrenched in spider holes and supported by well-sealed pillboxes housing automatic weapons with interlocking bandsof fire. The terrain was such that only 1 squad could advance at onetime; and from a knoll atop a ridge a pillbox covered the only approachwith automatic fire. Against this enemy stronghold, Staff SergeantJohn C. Sjogren led the first squad to open the assault. Deploying hismen, he moved forward and was hurling grenades when he saw thathis next in command, at the opposite flank, was gravely wounded.Without hesitation he crossed 20 yards of exposed terrain in the faceof enemy fire and exploding dynamite charges, moved the man tocover and administered first aid.

He then worked his way forward, advancing directly into the enemyfire, and killed 8 enemy soldiers in spider holes guarding the approachto the pillbox. Crawling to within a few feet of the pillbox while his menconcentrated their bullets on the fire port, he began droppinggrenades through the narrow firing slit. The enemy immediately threwthese unexploded grenades out, and fragments from one woundedhim in the hand and back. However, by hurling grenades through theembrasure faster then the enemy could return them, he succeeded indestroying the occupants. Despite his wounds, he directed his squadto follow him in a systematic attack on the remaining positions, whichhe eliminated in like manner, taking tremendous risks, overcomingbitter resistance, and never hesitating in his relentless advance. StaffSergeant Sjogren led his squad in destroying 9 pillboxes, therebypaving the way for his company's successful advance.


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NCO Education I

1-29. On 30 June 1947 the first class enrolled in the 2d Constabulary Brigade'sNCO school, located in Munich, Germany. Two years later, the US SeventhArmy took over the 2d Constabulary functions and the school became theSeventh Army Noncommissioned Officers Academy. Eight years later AR350-90 established Army-wide standards for NCO academies. Emphasis onNCO education increased to the point that by 1959 over 180,000 soldierswould attend NCO academies located in the continental United States. Inaddition to NCO academies, the Army encouraged enlisted men to advancetheir education by other means. By 1952 the Army had developed the ArmyEducation Program to allow soldiers to attain credits for academic education.This program provided a number of ways for the enlisted man to attain a highschool or college diploma.


1-30. In 1950 an unprepared United States again had to commit large numbersof troops in a war a half a world away. The North Korean attack on SouthKorea stressed American responsibilities overseas. Containment of communistaggression was the official policy of the United States. This meant thatAmerican commitments in Asia, Europe and the Pacific would require a strongand combat-ready professional Army. During the Korean War the NCOemerged more prominently as a battle leader than he had in World War II . Thesteep hills, ridges, narrow valleys and deep gorges forced many units toadvance as squads. Korea was the first war America fought with an integratedArmy. Black and white soldiers together fought a common foe.

Sergeant Ola Mize at Outpost Harry

Near Surang-ni, Sergeant Ola L. Mize led the defense of OutpostHarry. Learning of a wounded soldier in an outlying listening post,during an artillery barrage, Mize moved to rescue the soldier.Returning to the main position with the soldier, Mize rallied the troopsinto an effective defense as the enemy attacked in force. Knockeddown three times with grenade or artillery blasts, Mize continued tolead his men.

With the enemy assault temporarily halted, Mize and several menmoved from bunker to bunker clearing the enemy. Upon noticing afriendly machine gun position being overrun, he fought his way to theiraid, killing ten enemy soldiers and dispersing the rest. Securing aradio, he directed artillery fire upon the enemy's approach routes. Atdawn, Mize formed the survivors into a unit and successfully led acounterattack that cleared the enemy from the outpost.

1-31. In 1958 the Army added two grades to the NCO ranks. These paygrades, E-8 and E-9, would "provide for a better delineation of responsibilitiesin the enlisted structure." With the addition of these grades, the ranks of the


History and Background


NCO were corporal, sergeant, staff sergeant, sergeant first class, mastersergeant and sergeant major.


1-32. America’s strategy of containment continued after the Korean War andthe Nation set a course to help its ally South Vietnam defeat communistaggression. In 1965 America made a major commitment in ground troops toVietnam. The Vietnamese Communists fought a long drawn-out war, meant towear down American forces. Because no clear battle lines existed it was oftenhard to tell foe from friend. In 1973 a formal cease-fire signed by Americanand North Vietnamese delegations ended American troop commitments to thearea.

1-33. Vietnam proved to be a junior leader's war with decentralized control.Much of the burden of combat leadership fell on the NCO. With a need forlarge numbers of NCOs for combat duty, the Army began theNoncommissioned Officer Candidate Course, with three sites at Fort Benning,Fort Knox and Fort Sill. After a 12-week course, the graduate became an E-5;those in the top five percent became E-6s. An additional 10 weeks of hands-ontraining followed and then the NCO went to Vietnam. However, senior NCOshad mixed feelings about the program (sometimes called the “shake-and-bake”program). Many of these senior NCOs thought it undermined the prestige ofthe NCO Corps though few could say they actually knew an unqualified NCOfrom the course.

SFC Eugene Ashley at Lang Vei

During the initial stages of the defense of the Special Forces camp atLang Vei, Republic of Vietnam, SFC Eugene Ashley, Jr. supported thecamp with high explosives and illumination mortar rounds. Upon losingcommunication with the camp, he directed air strikes and artillerysupport. He then organized a small assault force composed of localfriendly forces.

Five times Ashley and his newly formed unit attacked enemypositions, clearing the enemy and proceeding through booby-trappedbunkers. Wounded by machine gun fire, Ashley continued on, finallydirecting air strikes on his own position to clear the enemy. As theenemy retreated he lapsed into unconsciousness. While beingtransported down the hill, an enemy artillery shell fatally wounded him.

Sergeant Major of the Army

1-33. In 1966 Army Chief of Staff Harold K. Johnson chose Sergeant MajorWilliam O. Wooldridge as the first Sergeant Major of the Army . The SMAwas to be the primary advisor and consultant to the Chief of Staff on enlistedmatters. He would identify problems affecting enlisted personnel andrecommend appropriate solutions.


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In his brief instructions, Johnson included on a 3 x 5 card that he presentedto Wooldridge that he was to advise the Chief of Staff on ‘all matterspertaining primarily to enlisted personnel, including … morale, welfare,training, clothing, insignia, equipment, pay and allowances, customs andcourtesies of the service, enlistment and reenlistment, discipline andpromotion policies.’Wooldridge kept the folded card in his wallet, the only written instructions hehad during his time in office. In a handwritten note to Wooldridge laterJohnson stated ‘You have shouldered a large burden and I am mostappreciative of the way you have done it.’Since the establishment of the position of Sergeant Major of the Army, theyhave been working to refine and bring back professionalism to the NCOCorps and refining the focus of the Office of the Sergeant Major of the Army.Today’s soldier can clearly identify with the top enlisted soldier serving atthe head of the noncommissioned officer support channel and we owe a debtof gratitude to General Johnson and the men who have made it possible …the Sergeants Major of the Army.


NCO Education II

1-34. After the US ended conscription following the Vietnam War, it becameincreasingly clear NCOs needed more sustained training throughout theircareers. NCO education expanded and became formalized in the 70s and 80s.Today’s NCO Education System includes the Primary LeadershipDevelopment Course (PLDC), Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course(BNCOC), the Advanced Noncommissioned Officer Course (ANCOC), andthe US Army Sergeants Major Course (USASMC). The Sergeants MajorCourse first began in January 1973 as the capstone training for the Army’smost senior NCOs. The Sergeants Major Academy also operates three seniorNCO courses outside NCOES that are designed to train NCOs for particularpositions. These are the First Sergeant Course (FSC), the Battle Staff Course(BSC) and the Command Sergeant Major Course (CSMC). In 1986 PLDCbecame a mandatory prerequisite for promotion to staff sergeant. This was thefirst time an NCOES course actually became mandatory for promotion.

1-35. In 1987 the Army completed work on a new state-of-the-art educationfacility at the Sergeants Major Academy at Fort Bliss, Texas, furtheremphasizing the importance of professional education for NCOs. This 17.5million-dollar, 125,000 square foot structure allowed the academy to expandcourse loads and number of courses. As the Noncommissioned OfficerEducation System continues to grow, the NCO of today combines history andtradition with skill and ability to prepare for combat. He retains the duties andresponsibilities given to him by von Steuben in 1778 and these have been builtupon to produce the soldier of today.


History and Background


Grenada and Panama

1-36. The murder of Grenada’s Prime Minister in October 1983 created abreakdown in civil order that threatened the lives of American medicalstudents living on the island. At the request of allied Caribbean nations, theUnited States invaded the island to safeguard the Americans there. OperationUrgent Fury included Army Rangers and Paratroopers from the 82nd AirborneDivision. This action succeeded in the eventual reestablishment of arepresentative form of government in Grenada. After Manuel Noriega seizedcontrol of his country in 1983, corruption in the Panamanian governmentbecame widespread and eventually Noriega threatened the security of theUnited States by cooperating with Colombian drug producers. Harassment ofAmerican personnel increased and after a US Marine was shot in December1989, the US launched Operation Just Cause. This invasion, including over25,000 soldiers, quickly secured its objectives. Noriega surrendered on 3January 1990 and was later convicted on drug trafficking charges.

The Gulf War

1-37. In August 1990 Iraqi military forces invaded and occupied Kuwait. TheUS immediately condemned Iraq's actions and began building support for acoalition to liberate Kuwait. Iraq’s dictator, Saddam Hussein, ignored thedemands of over 36 nations to leave Kuwait. In response, coalition forcesbegan deploying to Saudi Arabia. On 12 January 1991 Congress authorized theuse of military force to liberate Kuwait. Operation Desert Storm commenced17 January 1991 as the coalition initiated an air campaign to disable Iraq'sinfrastructure. After five weeks of air and missile attacks, ground troops,including over 300,000 from the US Army, began their campaign to freeKuwait. On 27 February 1991, coalition forces entered Kuwait City forcingIraq to concede a cease-fire after only 100 hours of ground combat.

Somalia and Rwanda

1-38. In the early 1990s Somalia was in the worst drought in over a centuryand its people were starving. The international community responded withhumanitarian aid but clan violence threatened international relief efforts. TheUnited Nations formed a US-led coalition to protect relief workers so aidcould continue to flow into the country. Operation Restore Hope succeeded,ending the starvation of the Somali people. US soldiers also assisted in civicprojects that built and repaired roads, schools, hospitals and orphanages. Ahistory of ethnic hatred in Rwanda led to murder on a genocidal scale. Up to amillion Rwandans were killed and two million Rwandans fled and settled inrefugee camps in several central African locations. Conditions in the campswere appalling; starvation and disease took even more lives. The internationalcommunity responded with one of the largest humanitarian relief efforts evermounted. The US military quickly established an atmosphere of collaborationand coordination setting up the necessary infrastructure to complement and


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support the humanitarian response community. In Operation Support Hope,US Army soldiers provided clean water, assisted in burying the dead andintegrated the transportation and distribution of relief supplies.

MSG Gordon and SFC Shughart at Mogadishu

On 17 October 1993, while serving as a Sniper Team with Task ForceRanger in Mogadishu, Somalia, Master Sergeant Gary I. Gordon andSergeant First Class Randall D. Shughart provided precision sniperfires from the lead helicopter during an assault on a building and attwo helicopter crash sites.

While providing critical suppressive fires at the second crash site,MSG Gordon and SFC Shughart learned that ground forces were notimmediately available to secure the site. They both unhesitatinglyvolunteered to be inserted to protect the four critically woundedpersonnel, despite being well aware of the growing number of enemypersonnel closing in on the site.

Equipped with only sniper rifles and pistols, MSG Gordon and SFCShughart, while under intense small arms fire from the enemy, foughttheir way through a dense maze of shanties and shacks to reach thecritically injured crewmembers. They immediately pulled the pilot andthe other crewmembers from the aircraft, establishing a perimeter thatplaced themselves in the most vulnerable position. MSG Gordon andSFC Shughart used their long-range rifles and side arms to kill anundetermined number of attackers. Master Sergeant Gordon thenwent back to the wreckage, recovering some of the crew's weaponsand ammunition. Despite the fact that he was critically low onammunition, he provided some of it to the dazed pilot and thenradioed for help. MSG Gordon and SFC Shughart continued to travelthe perimeter, protecting the downed crew.

SFC Shughart continued his protective fire until he depleted hisammunition and was fatally wounded. After he exhausted his own rifleammunition, MSG Gordon returned to the wreckage, recovering a riflewith the last five rounds of ammunition and gave it to the pilot with thewords, "good luck." Then, armed only with his pistol, MSG Gordoncontinued to fight until he was fatally wounded. The actions of MSGGordon and SFC Shughart saved the pilot's life.


1-39. In December 1990 Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected President of Haiti,in an election that international observers deemed largely free and fair.Aristide took office in February 1991, but was overthrown by the Army andforced to leave the country. The human rights climate deteriorated as themilitary and the de facto government sanctioned atrocities in defiance of theinternational community's condemnation. The United States led aMultinational Force to restore democracy by removing the military regime,return the previously elected Aristide regime to power, ensure security, assist


History and Background


with the rehabilitation of civil administration, train a police force, help preparefor elections and turn over responsibility to the UN. Operation UpholdDemocracy succeeded both in restoring the democratically elected governmentof Haiti and in stemming emigration. In March 1995 the United Statestransferred the peacekeeping responsibilities to the United Nations.

The Balkans

1-40. During the mid-1990s, Yugoslavia was in a state of unrest becausevarious ethnic groups wanted a separate state for themselves. Serbia attemptedthrough military force to prevent any group from gaining autonomy from thecentral government. Serbian forces brutally suppressed the separatistmovement of ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo, leaving hundredsdead and over 200,000 homeless. The refusal of Serbia to negotiate peace andstrong evidence of mass murder by Serbian forces resulted in thecommencement of Operation Allied Force. Air strikes against Serbian militarytargets continued for 78 days in an effort to bring an end to the atrocities thatcontinued to be waged by the Serbs. Serbian forces withdrew and NATOdeployed a peacekeeping force, including US Army soldiers, to restorestability to the region and assist in the repair of the civilian infrastructure.


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SGT Christine Roberts in Kosovo

In June 1999, SGT Christine Roberts was a flight medic with the 50th

Medical Company at Camp Bondsteel in Kosovo. Her air ambulancecrew was called to assist when a soldier lost his right foot after hestepped on a land mine while on patrol near Basici, Kosovo. Robertsrode a jungle-penetrator 200 feet down onto the steep hill to search byfoot, disregarding the potential danger from other mines. After findingthe casualty, she dressed his injured leg, tightened a tourniquet andthen loaded him on the hoist. He was lifted out from the wooded,mountainous terrain into the helicopter and flown to the hospital atCamp Bondsteel. SGT Roberts received the Soldier’s Medal for herheroism.

The War on Terrorism

1-41. Terrorists of the al-Qaeda network attacked the United States onSeptember 11, 2001, killing nearly 3000 people and destroying the WorldTrade Center in New York City. The United States, with enormous supportfrom the global community, responded with attacks on the al-Qaeda networkand the Taliban-controlled government of Afghanistan that was providing itsupport. Operation Enduring Freedom with US and allied forces quicklytoppled the Taliban regime and severely damaged the al-Qaeda forces inAfghanistan. US Army NCOs and soldiers continue to play a leading role inthe war on terrorism and provide security to the Nation.


Full Spectrum Operations

1-42. Today the Army’s operational doctrine covers the full spectrum ofoperations. That means stability, support, offense and defense operations.What that means to you is to conduct good training and make sure your soldiermeets the standards. Effective training is the cornerstone of operationalsuccess. Training to high standards is essential for a full spectrum force; theArmy cannot predict every operation it deploys to. Battle-focused training oncombat tasks prepares soldiers, units and leaders to deploy, fight and win.Upon alert, initial-entry Army forces deploy immediately, conduct operationsand complete any needed mission-specific training in country. Follow-onforces conduct pre- or post-deployment mission rehearsal exercises,abbreviated if necessary, based on available time and resources.

The Operational Environment

1-43. America’s potential adversaries learned from the Gulf War that tooppose US forces on our terms is foolhardy at best and may even be suicidal.As demonstrated by terrorist adversaries, we can expect that our enemies inthe future will attempt to avoid decisive battle; prolong the conflict; conductsophisticated ambushes; disperse combat forces and attempt to use information


History and Background


services to its advantage — all while inflicting unacceptable casualties on USforces.

1-44. The operational environment and the wide array of threats presentsignificant challenges. Army forces must simultaneously defeat an adversarywhile protecting noncombatants and the infrastructure on which they depend.This requires Army leaders to be adaptive and aware of their environment.

“Large units are likely to conduct simultaneous offensive, defensive, stabilityand support operations. Units at progressively lower echelons receivemissions that require fewer combinations. At lower echelons, units usuallyperform only one type of operation.”

FM 3-0, Operations, 2001

1-45. Depending on your mission and location, you and your soldiers, orperhaps the local population may be the targets of a terrorist attack. Anadversary may try to use you in an information campaign to destroy USresolve. The more vital your units’ mission is to the overall operation the morelikely it is that an adversary will attempt to target you in some way.

The Information Environment

1-46. All military operations take place within an information environmentthat is not within the control of military forces. The information environmentis the combination of individuals, organizations and systems that collect,process, store, display and disseminate information. It also includes theinformation itself. The media's use of real-time technology affects publicopinion and may alter the conduct of military operations. Now, more thanever, every soldier represents America — potentially to a global audience.

1-47. Technology enhances leader, unit and soldier performance and affectshow Army forces conduct full spectrum operations in peace, conflict and war.Even with its advantages, the side with superior technology does not alwayswin in land operations; rather, the side that applies combat power moreskillfully usually prevails. The skill of soldiers coupled with the effectivenessof leaders decides the outcomes of engagements, battles and campaigns.


1-48. The NCO has a key role in Army Transformation, perhaps the premierrole. As the Army becomes a more deployable, agile and responsive force,some units will reorganize, receive new equipment and learn new tactics. TheNCO, as the leader most responsible for individual and small unit training, willbuild the foundation for the Army’s objective force. New technology enablesyou to cover more ground and maintain better situational awareness. Butindividual and collective tasks are more complex, requiring small unit leaders


FM 7-22.7


to coordinate and synchronize soldiers’ efforts and the systems they employ toa degree never before seen.

“One thing some soldiers may not fully understand yet is that transformationinvolves a lot more than two brigades up at Fort Lewis - it’s about the futureand what kind of Army we’ll have for decades to come. We will continue toman, modernize and train our current forces throughout thetransformation…. We will continue to need sharp, quick-thinking leaders.The variety of missions and volume of information they’ll be given will placea lot of responsibility on them.

“Transformation could cause as many changes in training and developingleaders in our schools as tactics and equipment. The result will be a futurethat lets us put a more powerful force on the ground faster and that will savea lot of lives. These are interesting times and sergeants need to stay openminded, keep updated on transformation and be thinking about how it willimpact the NCO Corps.”

SMA Jack L. Tilley

1-49. Our Army has always benefited from NCOs who could and did displayinitiative, make decisions and seize opportunities that corresponded with thecommander’s intent. These qualities are more important than ever in ArmyTransformation. Despite technological improvement and increased situationalawareness at every level – the small unit leader must still make decisions thattake advantage of fleeting opportunities on the battlefield.

"The great strength about the Army is: we're adaptable. Given the right tools[soldiers] make it hum."

GEN John N. Abrams

ARMY VALUES1-50. You know what the Army Values are. They are important because theydefine character traits that help develop and maintain discipline. These valuesand the resulting discipline cause soldiers to do the right thing and continuedoing the right thing even when it is hard. In leaders these traits are doublyimportant – we all know that actions speak louder than words. Your soldierswatch what you do as well as listen to what you say. You can’t just carryvalues around on your keychain – demonstrate them in all you do.


Bear true faith and allegiance to the US Constitution, theArmy, your unit and other soldiers.

1-51. Stand by your soldiers’ honest mistakes – they can’t learn withoutmaking a few. Take pride in their accomplishments and ensure your superiors


History and Background


hear about them. Make sure they understand their mission, know how toaccomplish it and why it is important. Know that you and your soldiers arepart of a bigger picture and every soldier has a task that supports the overallobjective. When the commander makes a decision, execute – don’t talk downabout it either with your peers or your soldiers.

“Loyalty is the big thing, the greatest battle asset of all. But no one ever wins theloyalty of troops by preaching loyalty. It is given to him as he proves hispossession of the other virtues.”

BG S. L. A. Marshall


Fulfill your obligations.1-52. Take responsibility and do what's right, no matter how tough it is, evenwhen no one is watching. Accomplish all assigned or implied tasks to thefullest of your ability. Duty requires a willingness to accept full responsibilityfor your actions and for your soldiers’ performance. Take the initiative andanticipate requirements based on the situation. You will be asked to put theNation’s welfare and mission accomplishment ahead of the personal safety ofyou and your soldiers.

“The essence of duty is acting in the absence of orders or direction from others,based on an inner sense of what is morally and professionally right....”

GEN John A. Wickham Jr.


Treat people as they should be treated.1-53. Respect is treating others with consideration and honor. It is theexpectation that others are as committed to getting the job done as you arewhile accepting they may have different ways of doing so. You don’t have toaccept every suggestion to show respect; just expect honesty andprofessionalism. Conduct corrective training with the end in mind — to helpthat soldier develop discipline and ultimately survive on the battlefield.

“Regardless of age or grade, soldiers should be treated as matureindividuals. They are engaged in an honorable profession and deserve to betreated as such.”

GEN Bruce Clarke


FM 7-22.7



Put the welfare of the Nation, the Army and your soldiers beforeyour own.

1-54. What is best for our Nation, Army and organization must always comefirst. Selfless service is placing your duty before your personal desires. It is theability to endure hardships and insurmountable odds in the service of fellowsoldiers and our country. Placing your duty and your soldiers’ welfare beforeyour personal desires has always been key to the uniqueness of the AmericanNCO.

“The Nation today needs soldiers who think in terms of service to their countryand not in terms of their country’s debt to them.”

General of the Army Omar N. Bradley


Live up to all the Army values.1-55. Honor is living up to the Army Values. It starts with being honest withone’s self and being truthful and sincere in all of our actions. As GEN DouglasMacArthur once said, "The untruthful soldier trifles with the lives of hiscountrymen and the honor and safety of his country." Being honest with one’sself is perhaps the best way to live the Army Values. If something does notseem right to you or someone asks you to compromise your values, then youneed to assess the situation and take steps to correct or report the issue.

“What is life without honor? Degradation is worse than death.”

Lieutenant General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson


Do what's right, legally and morally.1-56. Integrity obliges one to act when duty calls. Integrity means to firmlyadhere to a code of moral and ethical principles. Living and speaking withintegrity is very hard. You must live by your word for everything, no buts, noexcuses. Having integrity and being honest in everything you say and dobuilds trust. As leaders, all soldiers are watching and looking to see that youare honest and live by your word. If you make a mistake, you should openlyacknowledge it, learn from it and move forward.

“The American people rightly look to their military leaders not only to be skilledin the technical aspects of the profession of arms, but also to be men of integrity.”

GEN J. Lawton Collins


History and Background



Face fear, danger, or adversity (Physical or Moral).1-57. Persevere in what you know to be right and don't tolerate wrongbehavior in others. Physical courage is overcoming fears of bodily harm whileperforming your duty. Moral courage is overcoming fears while doing what isright even if unpopular. It takes special courage to make and supportunpopular decisions. Do not compromise your values or moral principles. Ifyou believe you are right after thoughtful consideration, hold to your position.We expect and encourage candor and integrity from all soldiers. Taking theimmediate and right actions in a time of conflict will save lives.

“The concept of professional courage does not always mean being as tough asnails either. It also suggests a willingness to listen to the soldiers’ problems, to goto bat for them in a tough situation and it means knowing just how far they cango. It also means being willing to tell the boss when he’s wrong.”

SMA William Connelly

1-58. By accepting Army Values and by your example passing them on toyour soldiers, you help develop and spread the warrior ethos throughout theArmy. The warrior ethos is that frame of mind whereby soldiers will not quituntil they have accomplished their mission. It “compels soldiers to fightthrough all conditions to victory, no matter how long it takes and no matterhow much effort is required. It is the soldier’s selfless commitment to theNation, mission, unit and fellow soldiers. It is the professional attitude thatinspires every American soldier. The warrior ethos is grounded in refusal toaccept failure. It is developed and sustained through discipline, example,commitment to Army values and pride in the Army’s heritage.”

Corporal Rodolfo Hernandez on Hill 420

CPL Rodolfo P. Hernandez, G Company, 187th Regimental CombatTeam was with his platoon on Hill 420 near Wontong-ni, Korea onMay 31st, 1951. His platoon came under ruthless attack by anumerically superior and fanatical hostile force, accompanied byheavy artillery, mortar and machinegun fire that inflicted numerouscasualties on the platoon. His comrades were forced to withdraw dueto lack of ammunition but CPL Hernandez, although wounded in anexchange of grenades, continued to deliver deadly fire into the ranksof the onrushing assailants until a ruptured cartridge rendered his rifleinoperative. Immediately leaving his position, CPL. Hernandez rushedthe enemy armed only with rifle and bayonet. Fearlessly engaging thefoe, he killed 6 of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade,bayonet and bullet wounds but his heroic action momentarily haltedthe enemy advance and enabled his unit to counterattack and retakethe lost ground.


FM 7-22.7


NCO PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT1-59. The leader development process is executed in three pillars: InstitutionalTraining, Operational Assignments and Self- Development. TheNoncommissioned Officer Education System (NCOES ) is the keystone forNCO development. NCOES provides leader and MOS skill training in anintegrated system of resident training at four levels. This is a continuous cycleof education, training, experience, assessment, feedback and reinforcement.The needs of the unit and the demonstrated potential of the leaders are alwayskept in focus and balanced at all times. The emphasis is on developingcompetent and confident leaders who understand and are able to exploit thefull potential of current and future Army doctrine. Self-development tiestogether NCOs’ experience and training to make them better leaders, whichultimately benefit their units’ combat readiness. See Figure 1-1.

Noncommissioned officers, properly to perform the duties of their position,require, and should receive, a special education

Report of the Secretary of War, 1888

Figure 1-1. Army Training and Education Program

The NCO Education System

1-60. PLDC: The first leadership course NCOs will likely attend is the non-MOS specific Primary Leadership Development Course (PLDC) conducted atsixteen Noncommissioned Officer Academies (NCOA) worldwide. Soldiersmay appear before the promotion board and can be conditionally promoted tosergeant prior to attending PLDC. Commanders and First Sergeants should

Institutional Training and Education

Home StationTraining






History and Background


closely monitor the announced MOS cutoff scores in programming soldiers toattend PLDC.

“The purpose of the Noncommissioned Officer Education System is to buildNCO trust and confidence, to raise tactical and technical competence and toinculcate the essential values of the professional Army ethic through thecorps.”

COL Kenneth Simpson and CSM Oren Bevins

1-61. BNCOC: Combat arms (CA) /combat support (CS) /combat servicesupport (CSS) Basic NCO Course occurs at proponent service schools.Successful completion of BNCOC is a prerequisite for consideration forpromotion to Sergeant First Class. Active component sergeants promotable toStaff Sergeant can be conditionally promoted prior to attendance at BNCOC,but must complete the course within one year. Reserve component sergeantsmust first complete Phase I. Training varies in length from two to nineteenweeks with an average of nine weeks. A 12-day common core, designed by theUS Army Sergeants Major Academy, supplements leadership training receivedat PLDC. The Department of the Army funds all BNCOC courses. Priority forattendance is SSG and SGT (P).

1-62. The BNCOC Automated Reservation System (BARS) schedules ActiveComponent soldiers to attend BNCOC while the Reserve Component usesATRRS (Army Training and Requirements Resource System). The systemsprovide the Army Personnel Command (PERSCOM) with an order of meritlisting of soldiers eligible to attend BNCOC. The order of merit listing is basedon criteria established by the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel(ODCSPER) and the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations(ODCSOPS). The report enables PERSCOM to identify the "best qualified"soldiers for training and nominates them to their commander for verificationthat the soldier is qualified to attend BNCOC. Commanders have the option ofcanceling the PERSCOM nomination if the soldier is unqualified. If thecommander cancels the nomination, PERSCOM will then select a replacementfrom the Army wide order of merit list.

1-63. Department of the Army selects Advanced NCO Course (ANCOC)attendees by a centralized SFC promotion / Advanced NoncommissionedOfficer Course Selection Board. The zone of consideration is announced byPERSCOM before each board convenes. SSGs (P) can be conditionallypromoted prior to attending ANCOC but must complete the course within ayear. SSGs (P) can be conditionally promoted prior to and during the course tosergeant first class. All soldiers selected for promotion to SFC who have notpreviously attended ANCOC are automatic selectees. Priority for ANCOCattendance is SFC and SSG (P).


FM 7-22.7


1-64. USASMC. The US Army Sergeants Major Course (USASMC) is thesenior level NCOES course and the capstone of NCO education. TheUSASMC is a nine-month resident course conducted at Fort Bliss, TX.Selected individuals may complete USASMC through non-resident training. ADepartment of the Army centralized selection board determines who attendsresident or non-resident training. Soldiers selected for promotion to SGM orappointment to CSM who are not graduates will attend the next residentUSASMC. Soldiers may not decline once selected. USASMC is a requirementfor promotion to SGM. MSGs (P) can be conditionally promoted to SGM priorto and during the course to sergeant major. NCOs who complete the SergeantsMajor Course incur a two-year service obligation.

"… the program of instruction is very demanding, particularly in the areas ofhuman relations and military organization and operations."

MSG Henry Caro, regarding the Sergeants Major Course

Operational Assignments

1-65. Operational experience provides leaders the opportunity to use and buildupon what was learned through the process of formal education. Experiencegained through a variety of challenging duty assignments prepares NCOs tolead soldiers in combat. An NCO’s MOS is usually the basis for operationalassignments. Special duty assignments present unique opportunities for leaderdevelopment as the NCO is often performing duties outside his or her PMOS(e.g. drill instructor, recruiting, joint duty and NCOES Instructor).Commanders and leaders use the unit Leader Development Program (LDP)and NCO Development Program to enhance NCO development duringoperational assignments.

1-66. Developing leaders is a priority mission in command and organizations.Commanders, leaders and supervisors develop soldiers and ensure necessaryeducational requirements are met. Commanders establish formal unit LDPsthat focus on developing individual leaders. These programs normally consistof three phases: reception and integration, basic skill development, andadvanced development and sustainment.

• Reception and Integration. The 1SG and CSM interview new NCOs anddiscuss the new leader’s duty position, previous experience and training,personal goals and possible future assignments. Some units may administer adiagnostic test to identify strengths and weaknesses. The 1SG and CSM usethis information to help design a formal developmental program specific tothat new leader.

• Basic Skill Development. The new leader attains a minimum acceptable levelof proficiency in critical tasks necessary to perform his mission. Theresponsibility for this phase lies with the new NCOs immediate supervisor,assisted by other key NCOs and officers.


History and Background


• Advanced Development and Sustainment. This phase sustains proficiency intasks already mastered and develops new skills. This is often done throughadditional duty assignments, technical or developmental courses and self-development.


1-67. The NCO Development Program (NCODP) is the CSM's leaderdevelopment program for NCOs. NCODP encompasses most training at theunit level and is tailored to the unique requirements of the unit and its NCOs.NCODP should be 75% METL-driven tasks and 25% general military subjectssuch as Customs, Courtesies and Traditions of the US Army.

You must learn more so that you can do more for your [soldiers] as well asprepare for higher rank and greater responsibility.

The Noncom’s Guide, 1948


1-68. Self-development is a life-long, standards-based, competency drivenprocess that is progressive and sequential and complements institutional andoperational experiences to provide personal and professional development. Itis accomplished through structured and non-structured, technical and academiclearning experiences conducted in multiple environments using traditional,technology-enhanced and self-directed methods. Self-development consists ofindividual study, education, research, professional reading, practice and self-assessment.

“A sergeant can’t say on the one hand, ‘self-improvement is essential,’ thenon the other hand put off Army schooling or other self-developmentprograms.”

CSM George D. Mock and SFC John K. D’Amato

1-69. Self-development includes both structured and self-motivateddevelopment tasks. At junior levels, self-development is very structured andnarrowly focused. It is tailored towards building the basic leader skills andclosely tied with unit NCO Development Programs. The components may bedistance learning, directed reading programs or other activities that directlyrelate to building direct leader skills. As NCOs become more senior in rank,self-motivated development becomes more important – activities likeprofessional reading or college courses that help the senior NCO developorganizational leadership skills.

1-70. Professional Development Models (PDM). PDMs are available foreach Career Management Field. You can find these in DA PAM 600-25 “TheUS Army Noncommissioned Officer Professional Development Guide.”


FM 7-22.7


PDMs provide both career and educational ‘road maps’ for NCOs to assist inself-development.

• Portray institutional training and operational assignments in relation to CMFrecommended self-development activities. Leader self-development is anindividual soldier responsibility over which a soldier has direct control.

• Emphasize self-development. Soldiers should not over-emphasizeeducational activities to the point where self-development takes precedenceover duty performance.

• List operational assignments as examples of a career path. Soldiers shouldconsult with their supervisors for their particular CMF progression.

• Guide soldiers through CMF proponent recommended activities to becomemore proficient at current and next higher missions.

• Complement and supplement NCOES institution instruction and Skill Levelexperiences without duplicating them.

• Focus on broad, general recommendations that address skills, knowledge andattitudes successful NCOs have found to be beneficial to their careerprogression. Each PDM lists recommended self-development activities toaccomplish prior to NCOES courses and during specific MOS skill levels.

• Recommend goals to include professional certification and degrees related tothe soldier's CMF. There are alternate methods of achievingrecommendations, e.g., examinations, correspondence courses, learningcenter activities and education counselors that can assist soldiers in findingappropriate activities.

• Offer a series of planned, progressive, sequential developmental activitiesthat leaders can follow to enhance and sustain military leadershipcompetencies throughout their careers. Self-development activities requiresacrifice of off-duty time to achieve desired goals.

• Provide the recommended activities soldiers can take to better preparethemselves for each phase of NCOES and to perform in each dutyassignment.

• Review branch guidance on the appropriate PERSCOM branch website.

1-71. Educational Activities in Support of Self-Development.Self-development activities recommended in PDMs draw on the programs andservices offered through the Army Continuing Education System (ACES)which operate education centers throughout the Army.

• E-learning through Army Knowledge Online (AKO). AKO has or can directan NCO to various college courses and other learning activities that directlysupport the NCO’s MOS and self-development goals. Through your ArmyKnowledge Online account complete an ATRRS (Army TrainingRequirements and Resource System) application.

• Education Center Counseling Service. Academic and vocational counselingservices to assist soldiers establishing professional and educational goals.


History and Background


• Functional Academic Skills Training. Instruction in reading, mathematics andcommunication skills to prepare for advanced training and meet prerequisitesfor further education. These courses can help soldiers achieve therecommended reading grade level (10 - PLDC, 11 - BNCOC and ANCOCand 12 –SMC). This is an on-duty commander's program to ensure soldierspossess the necessary reading and writing skills to succeed.

• High School Completion. This is an off-duty program to help soldiers earn ahigh school diploma or equivalency certificate.

• College Courses. Each installation education center arranges with colleges toprovide courses on post that lead to a degree. Tuition Assistance (TA) isauthorized to pay for voluntary off-duty educational programs that supportthe educational objectives of the Army and the soldier's self-developmentgoals. This program helps soldiers earn associate, baccalaureate and graduatedegrees.

• Testing. Education centers offer a wide range of academic and vocationalinterest tests. Some of the tests available are the Test of Adult BasicEducation (TABE); Reading Comprehension Test for NCOES; ScholasticAssessment Test (SAT) and American College Test (ACT) for collegeentrance; and CLEP tests for college credit.

• Language Training. For non-linguists, ACES provides host-nation orientationand instruction in basic language skills. These courses enhance languageskills of soldiers whose primary duties require frequent contact with host-nation counterparts. Materials are also available for sustainment of languageskills.

• Correspondence Courses. The Defense Activity for Non-TraditionalEducation Support (DANTES) publishes a catalog of post-secondarycorrespondence courses soldiers can enroll in as an alternative to attendingregular classroom courses. TA is available for approved courses. Educationalcounselors can advise soldiers.

• Army Learning Centers. These centers support self-development, unit andindividual training. They provide a variety of independent study materials,computer based instruction, language labs, tutorial services and a militarypublications library.

• Army Correspondence Course Programs (ACCP). The ACCP provides avariety of self-study correspondence courses specific to Career ManagementFields (CMF) and Military Occupational Specialties (MOS). Courses are alsoavailable in leadership and training management. Each course and sub-courseearns soldiers promotion points upon successful completion. Enroll at the unitor the learning center.


FM 7-22.7



Today you have started a new chapter in your career in the Army. Youare now a part of the noncommissioned officer corps in the professionof arms. The transition from an enlisted soldier to a noncommissionedofficer is a historical tradition that can be traced to the Army ofFrederick the Great.

The journey from junior enlisted to junior NCO is complex. You mustnow transition from one that was cared for to one who cares for othersand from one who was taught to one that teaches, prepares for andsupervises tasks. You might stay in the same section or perhaps youwill move to a different organization entirely. Either way, you will do thejob you have been trained to do – lead soldiers.

An NCO’s job is not easy. You must speak with your own voice whengiving orders - don’t show favoritism. This is especially true for yourformer peers. You must treat each soldier the same and give him therespect he deserves, as you will expect to receive the same treatmentin return. Remember that you are now responsible and accountable foryour soldiers. The Army expects total commitment from those who areselected to lead, train and care for its soldiers.

Being an NCO is extremely rewarding. It is an honor and a privilege tolead America’s finest men and women during peacetime and at war.Never forget this awesome responsibility.

Army values, the NCO Charge, the NCO Vision and the NCO Creedeach provide guidance and inspiration to lead from the front. Live eachand every day by the NCO Creed and include it in your daily business.The NCO Creed will help you through tough times and situations.



Chapter 2

Duties, Responsibilities and Authority ofthe NCO

Do the right thing – always

Assuming a Leadership Position .............................................. 2-3Duties, Responsibilities and Authority...................................... 2-4

Duty ....................................................................................... 2-4Responsibility ........................................................................ 2-5Authority ................................................................................ 2-7

Inspections and Corrections................................................... 2-10Types of Inspections............................................................ 2-11

Noncommissioned, Commissioned and Warrant OfficerRelationships .......................................................................... 2-14The Commissioned Officer...................................................... 2-14The Warrant Officer................................................................. 2-15The Noncommissioned Officer................................................ 2-15Special Mention ...................................................................... 2-16The Noncommissioned Officer Support Channel.................... 2-17NCO Ranks.............................................................................. 2-19



FM 7-22.7


Sergeant Major of the Army..................................................2-19Command Sergeant Major and Sergeant Major ....................2-19First Sergeant and Master Sergeant .....................................2-21Platoon Sergeant and Sergeant First Class ..........................2-21Squad, Section and Team Leaders .......................................2-22

You Are a Noncommissioned Officer.......................................2-23

For more information on Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of theNCO see AR 600-20, “Army Command Policy,” DA PAM 600-25, “USArmy NCO Professional Development Guide” and FM 6-22 (22-100),Army Leadership.

For more information on inspections see FM 22-5, Drill and Ceremoniesand AR 1-201, “Army Inspection Policy.”


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


ASSUMING A LEADERSHIP POSITION2-1. Assuming a leadership position is one of the most important leadershipsituations you’ll face as an NCO. Everything discussed in FM 6-22 (22-100)about what you must BE, KNOW and DO is relevant to your success ofassuming a leadership position.

2-2. When assuming a leadership position, there are some things to think aboutand learn as you establish your goals in the organization. Figure 2-1 will assistyou in achieving your goals.

• Determine what your organization expects of you.• Determine who your immediate leader is and what they expect of you.• Determine the level of competence and the strengths and weaknesses

of your soldiers.• Identify the key people outside of your organization whose willing

support you need to accomplish the mission.

2-3. You should also talk to your leaders, peers and key people such as thechaplain and the sergeant major. Seek clear answers to the questions in Figure2-2.

• What is the organization’s mission?• How does this mission fit in with the mission of the next higher

organization?• What are the standards the organization must meet?• What resources are available to help the organization accomplish the

mission?• What is the current state of morale?• Who reports directly to you?• What are the strengths and weaknesses of your key subordinates and

the unit?• Who are the key people outside the organization who support mission

accomplishment? (What are their strengths and weaknesses?)• When and what do you talk to your soldiers about?

2-4. Be sure to ask these questions at the right time, of the right person and inthe best way. The answers to these questions and others you may have willhelp you to correctly assess the situation and select the right leadership style.

Figure 2-1. Tasks to Assume a Leadership Position

Figure 2-2. Questions When Assuming a Leadership Position


FM 7-22.7


DUTIES, RESPONSIBILITIES AND AUTHORITY2-5. As a noncommissioned officer, you have duties, responsibilities andauthority. Do you know the meaning of duties, responsibilities and authority?


2-6. A duty is something you must do by virtue of your position and is a legalor moral obligation. For example, it is the supply sergeant’s duty to issueequipment and keep records of the unit’s supplies. It is the first sergeant’s dutyto hold formations, instruct platoon sergeants and assist the commander insupervising unit operations. It is the duty of the squad/section/team leader toaccount for his soldiers and ensure that they receive necessary instructions andare properly trained to perform their jobs.

2-7. A noncommissioned officer’s duties are numerous and must be takenseriously. An NCO’s duty includes taking care of soldiers, which is yourpriority. Corporals and sergeants do this by developing a genuine concern fortheir soldiers’ well-being. Leaders must know and understand their soldierswell enough to train them as individuals and teams to operate proficiently.This will give them confidence in their ability to perform well under thedifficult and demanding conditions of battle. Individual training is theprinciple duty and responsibility of NCOs. No one in the Army has more to dowith training soldiers than NCOs. Well trained soldiers will likely succeed andsurvive on the battlefield. Well trained soldiers properly do the tasks theirNCOs give them. A good leader executes the boss’s decisions with energy andenthusiasm; looking at their leader, soldiers will believe the leader thinks it’sabsolutely the best possible solution.

“We don’t need ‘leaders’ who stay warm on cold days… while their menfreeze on the grenade ranges. If they get cold, the leader ought to get just ascold. And when he marches back to the barracks with them after that kind ofday, they know he is one of them.”

Drill Sergeant Karl Baccene

2-8. There may be situations you must think carefully about what you’re toldto do. For example, duty requires that you refuse to obey illegal orders. This isnot a privilege you can claim, but a duty you must perform. You have nochoice but to do what’s ethically and legally correct. Making the right choiceand acting on it when faced with an ethical question can be difficult.Sometimes, it means standing your ground and telling your supervisor youthink their wrong. If you think an order is illegal, first be sure that youunderstand both the details of the order and its original intent. Seekclarification from the person who gave the order. This takes moral courage,but the question will be straightforward: Did you really mean for me to… stealthe part… submit a false report… shoot the prisoners?


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


“Moral courage, to me, is much more demanding than physical courage.”

SMA Leon L. Van Autreve

2-9. If the question is complex and time permits, seek advice from legalassistance. However, if you must decide immediately, as in the heat of combat,make the best judgment possible based on the Army values and attributes,your experience and your previous study and reflection. You take a risk whenyou disobey what you perceive to be an illegal order. Talk to your superiors,particularly those who have done what you aspire to do or what you thinkyou’ll be called on to do; providing counsel of this sort is an important part ofleadership. Obviously, you need to make time to do this before you’re facedwith a tough call. This could possibly be the most difficult decision you’ll evermake, but that’s what leaders do.

2-10. Noncommissioned officers have three types of duties: specified duties,directed duties and implied duties.

2-11. Specified duties are those related to jobs and positions. Directives suchas Army regulations, Department of the Army (DA) general orders, theUniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), soldier’s manuals, Army Trainingand Evaluation Program (ARTEP) publications and MOS job descriptionsspecify the duties. For example, AR 600-20 says that NCOs must ensure thattheir soldiers get proper individual training and maintain personal appearanceand cleanliness.

2-12. Directed duties are not specified as part of a job position or MOS orother directive. A superior gives them orally or in writing. Directed dutiesinclude being in charge of quarters (CQ) or serving as sergeant of the guard,staff duty officer, company training NCO and NBC NCO, where these dutiesare not found in the unit’s organization charts.

2-13. Implied duties often support specified duties, but in some cases theymay not be related to the MOS job position. These duties may not be writtenbut implied in the instructions. They’re duties that improve the quality of thejob and help keep the unit functioning at an optimum level. In most cases,these duties depend on individual initiative. They improve the workenvironment and motivate soldiers to perform because they want to, notbecause they have to. For example, while not specifically directed to do so,you hold in-ranks inspections daily to ensure your soldiers’ appearance andequipment are up to standards.


2-14. Responsibility is being accountable for what you do or fail to do. NCOsare responsible to fulfill not only their individual duties, but also to ensure


FM 7-22.7


their teams and units are successful. Any duty, because of the position youhold in the unit, includes a responsibility to execute that duty. As an NCO, youare accountable for your personal conduct and that of your soldiers. Also, eachsoldier is individually responsible for his own personal conduct and thatresponsibility cannot be delegated. A soldier is accountable for his actions tofellow soldiers, leaders, unit and the US Army.

2-15. As a leader you must ensure that your soldiers clearly understand theirresponsibilities as members of the team and as representative of the Army.Commanders set overall policies and standards, but all leaders must providethe guidance, resources, assistance and supervision necessary for soldiers toperform their duties. Mission accomplishment demands that officers andNCOs work together to advise, assist and learn from each other.Responsibilities fall into two categories: command and individual.

2-16. Command responsibility refers to collective or organizationalaccountability and includes how well the unit performs their missions. Forexample, a company commander is responsible for all the tasks and missionsassigned to the company; his superiors hold him accountable for completingthem. Commanders give military leaders the responsibility for what theirsections, units, or organizations do or fail to do. NCOs are thereforeresponsible to fulfill not only their individual duties, but also to ensure thattheir team and unit are successful. The amount of responsibility delegated toyou depends on your mission, the position you hold and your own willingnessto accept responsibility.

2-17. One point you need to get straight is that although a list of duties can bedrawn up describing what is expected of you, it will not tell you how to doyour job. For example, one of an NCO’s duties is to enforce standards ofmilitary appearance. This means you are responsible for correcting soldierswho wear the uniform improperly and for teaching them the correct standardsof appearance. It also means that you should inspect for proper andserviceability, clothing and equipment of your soldiers. Remember that youmust set the example first and your soldiers will follow in your footsteps.

"Rank is a badge of responsibility..."

DA Pam 360-1 (1957)

2-18. Individual responsibility as a noncommissioned officer means you areaccountable for your personal conduct. Soldiers in the Army have their ownresponsibilities. For example, if you write a check at the commissary, it is yourresponsibility to have sufficient funds in the bank account to cover the check.Individual responsibility cannot be delegated; it belongs to the soldier thatwrote the check. Soldiers are accountable for their actions, to their fellow


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


soldiers, to their leaders, to their unit and to the United States Army. As aleader you must ensure that your soldiers understand clearly theirresponsibilities as members of the team and as representatives of the Army.

“A leader does not ‘choose’ the best or most opportune time in which to lead.A good leader takes the challenge whenever and wherever it presents itselfand does the best he or she can.”

SMA Richard A. Kidd


2-19. As a noncommissioned officer, you must know what authority you haveand where it comes from. You are also expected to use good judgment whenexercising your authority.

2-20. Authority is defined as the right to direct soldiers to do certain things.Authority is the legitimate power of leaders to direct soldiers or to take actionwithin the scope of their position. Military authority begins with theConstitution, which divides it between Congress and the President. ThePresident, as commander in chief, commands the armed forces, including theArmy. The authority from the Commander-in-Chief extends through the chainof command, with the assistance of the NCO support channel, to the squad,section or team leader who then directs and supervises the actions ofindividual soldiers. When you say, “PFC Lee, you and PFC Johnson startfilling sandbags; SPC Garcia and SPC Smith will provide security from thathill,” you are turning into action the orders of the entire chain of command.

2-21. In the Army there are two basic types of authority: command authorityand general military authority.

2-22. Command authority is the authority leaders have over soldiers byvirtue of rank or assignment. Command authority originates with the Presidentand may be supplemented by law or regulation. Even though it is called“command” authority, it is not limited to officers – you have commandauthority inherent in your leadership position as a tank commander or teamleader, for example. Noncommissioned officers’ command authority isinherent with the job by virtue of position to direct or control soldiers.

“It takes guts for an NCO to use inherent authority and responsibility intraining, maintaining, leading, and caring for soldiers.”

SMA Glen E. Morrell

2-23. Leading soldiers includes the authority to organize, direct and controlyour assigned soldiers so that they accomplish assigned missions. It alsoincludes authority to use assigned equipment and resources to accomplish your


FM 7-22.7


missions. Remember that this only applies to soldiers and facilities in yourunit. For example, if the platoon sergeant of first platoon goes on leave and asquad leader is put in charge, that squad leader has command authority overonly first platoon, until he is relieved from the responsibility. The soldiers infirst platoon will obey the squad leader’s orders due to his position. However,the squad leader does not have command authority over another platoon.

"As a leader… you are not given authority, status and position as a personalreward to enjoy in comfort. You are given them so that you may be of greaterservice to your subordinates, your unit and your country."

FM 22-100, Army Leadership (1983)

2-24. General military authority is authority extended to all soldiers to takeaction and act in the absence of a unit leader or other designated authority. Itoriginates in oaths of office, law, rank structure, traditions and regulations.This broad-based authority also allows leaders to take appropriate correctiveactions whenever a member of any armed service, anywhere, commits an actinvolving a breach of good order or discipline. For example, if you see soldiersin a brawl, you have the general military authority (and the obligation) to stopthe fight. This authority applies even if none of the soldiers are in your unit.

2-25. General military authority exists whether you are on duty or not, inuniform or in civilian attire and regardless of location. For example, you areoff duty, in civilian clothes and in the PX and you see a soldier in uniformwith his headgear raised up and trousers unbloused. You stop the soldierimmediately, identify yourself and ensure the soldier understands and makesthe necessary corrections. If he refuses, saying you don’t have the authority totell him what to do because he’s not in your NCO support channel, the soldieris wrong..

2-26. You as an NCO have both general military authority and the duty toenforce standards as outlined in AR 670-1. Your authority to enforce thoseregulations is specified in AR 600-20 and if you neglect your duty, you can beheld accountable. If the soldier refuses to obey you, what can you do? Forstarters, you can explain that you have authority regardless of your location,your unit, or whether you are in uniform or civilian attire. You may decide tosettle for the soldier’s name and unit. If so, a phone call to his first sergeantshould be more than enough to ensure that such an incident does not recur.

“Speak with your own voice.”

CSM Clifford R. West

2-27. Delegation of authority. Just as Congress and the President cannotparticipate in every aspect of the armed forces operations, most leaders cannot


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


handle every action directly. To meet the organization’s goals, officersdelegate authority to NCOs in the NCO Support Channel who, in turn, mayfurther delegate that authority. Unless restricted by law, regulation, or asuperior, leaders may delegate any or all of their authority to their subordinateleaders. However, such delegation must fall within the leader’s scope ofauthority. Leaders cannot delegate authority they do not have and subordinateleaders may not assume authority that superiors do not have, cannot delegate,or have retained. The task or duty to be performed limits the authority of theleader to whom it is assigned.

2-28. Both command and general military authority originate in theConstitution and Congress has further defined them in law. More explicitsources are Army Regulations, the Manual for Courts Martial (MCM) and thechain of command/NCO support channel.

2-29. You don’t need to read or remember all Army Regulations (ARs) butstudy those that pertain to your job. If necessary, ask other NCOs to help youfind out what regulations pertain to you, where they can be found and how tointerpret them. Start with AR 600–20. It covers enlisted soldiers’ andnoncommissioned officers’ authority and responsibilities.

2-30. The Manual for Courts Martial (MCM, 2002) describes legal aspects ofthe authority of the noncommissioned officer. It states in part that, “Allcommissioned officers, warrant officers and noncommissioned officers areauthorized to stop quarrels, frays and disorders among persons subject to thecode….” Severe penalties are imposed for violations such as disrespect,insubordination, or assault. No one expects you to be an expert on militarylaw, but as a noncommissioned officer you should know the definition of thesewords and be able to explain them to your soldiers. Your legal clerk can be agood source of information.

Authority of the NCO is part of the equation in militarydiscipline.

2-31. Your authority also stems from the combination of the chain ofcommand and the NCO support channel. Orders and policies that pass throughthe chain of command or the NCO support channel automatically provide theauthority necessary to get the job done. With such broad authority given to allcommissioned officers and noncommissioned officers, the responsibility to usemature, sound judgment is critical. The chain of command backs up the NCOsupport channel by legally punishing those who challenge the NCO’sauthority. But it does so only if the noncommissioned officer’s actions andorders are sound, intelligent and based on proper authority. To be a goodleader, you should learn what types of authority you have and where it comesfrom. Whenever in doubt, ask. Once you’re confident that you know the extent


FM 7-22.7


of your authority, use sound judgment in applying it. Then you will be a leaderrespected by both your soldiers and superiors.

INSPECTIONS AND CORRECTIONS2-32. Why do we have inspections? From long experience, the Army hasfound that some soldiers, if allowed to, will become careless and lax in theperformance of minor barrack duties in their unit. They become accustomed toconditions in their immediate surroundings and overlook minor deficiencies.Should a soldier fall below the Army standard of performance, you can beassured that someone will notice those deficiencies immediately.

2-33. Your superiors will order inspections to see that soldiers have all theequipment and clothing issued to them and that it is serviceable. Inspectionsserve this practical purpose; they are not harassment. You will probably agreethat inspections often correct small problems before they become bigproblems. Sharp appearance, efficient performance and excellent maintenanceare important considerations that affect you directly. They are the earmarks ofa good organization and one you should be a proud member of. First line


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


leaders should inspect their soldiers daily and should regularly check soldiers’rooms in the barracks. First line leaders should also make arrangements withsoldiers who live in quarters (on or off post) to ensure the soldier maintains ahealthy and safe environment for himself and his family.


2-34. There are two categories of inspections for determining the status ofindividual soldiers and their equipment: in-ranks and in-quarters. An in-ranksinspection is of personnel and equipment in a unit formation. The leaderexamines each soldier individually, noticing their general appearance and thecondition of their clothing and equipment. When inspecting crew-servedweapons and vehicles, the personnel are normally positioned to the rear of theformation with the operators standing by their vehicle or weapon. Leaders mayconduct an in-quarters (barracks) inspection to include personal appearance,individual weapons, field equipment, displays, maintenance and sanitaryconditions. Organizations will have inspection programs that help determinethe status and mission readiness of the unit and its components. These includeCommand Inspections, Staff Inspections and Inspector General Inspections.

• The training, instruction, or correction given to a soldier to correctdeficiencies must be directly related to the deficiency.

• Orient the corrective action to improving the soldier’s performance intheir problem area.

• You may take corrective measures after normal duty hours. Suchmeasures assume the nature of the training or instruction, notpunishment.

• Corrective training should continue only until the training deficiency isovercome.

• All levels of command should take care to ensure that training andinstruction are not used in an oppressive manner to evade theprocedural safeguards in imposing nonjudical punishment.

• Do not make notes in soldiers’ official records of deficienciessatisfactorily corrected by means of training and instruction.

2-35. On-the-Spot Corrections. One of the most effective administrativecorrective measures is on-the-spot correction. Use this tool for making thequickest and often most effective corrections to deficiencies in training orstandards. Generally there is one of two reasons a soldier requires an on-the-spot correction. Either the soldier you are correcting does not know what thestandard is or does not care what the standard is. If the soldier was aware ofthe standard but chose not to adhere to it, this may indicate a larger problemthat his chain of command should address. In such a situation you might

Figure 2-3. On-the-Spot Correction Guidelines


FM 7-22.7


follow up an on-the-spot correction with a call to the soldier’s first sergeant.Figure 2-3 provides guidelines on making an on-the-spot correction.

SGT Park and the On-the-Spot Correction

As SGT Park left the Dining Facility after breakfast one morning, hestopped to buy a paper from a newspaper machine nearby. Just as helet go of the machine door, letting it slam shut, a soldier (who wasabout 30 feet away) shouted, “Hey! Hold it Open!” When the soldiersaw SGT Park had let it close he said, “Thanks a lot, pal.”

SGT Park called the soldier over, identified himself and his unit andasked if the soldier knew the proper way to address an NCO. Thesoldier said he hadn’t realized that SGT Park was an NCO and wouldhave addressed him by his rank if he had. Then SGT Park asked himif he was aware that taking a newspaper without paying for it wastheft. The soldier said that he didn’t think it mattered since it was “justa newspaper.” SGT Park told him that it did matter, just as properexecution of seemingly small, unimportant tasks matters to the Armyas a whole. The soldier, who was at parade rest and respectfulthroughout the conversation, nodded and said, “Alright, sergeant.”

SGT Park ended the on-the-spot correction by asking the soldier tothink about what integrity meant and whether a soldier’s honesty isimportant to the Army.

2-36. Keeping a soldier on track is the key element in solving performanceproblems. Motivated soldiers keep the group functioning, training productiveand ultimately, accomplish the training objectives and most importantly themission. Some leaders believe that soldiers work as expected simply becausethat is their job. That may be true. But soldiers and leaders need a simple paton back once in a while, for a job well done. You need to praise your soldiersand let them know that you care about the job they are doing and you are gladthey are part of the team. Soldiers not performing to standard need correction;use the on-the-spot correction tool. Even after making an on-the-spotcorrection additional training may be necessary. Figure 2-4 shows the steps inmaking an on-the-spot correction.

• Correct the soldier.• Attack the performance, never the person.• Give one correction at a time. Do not dump.• Don’t keep bringing it up — when the correction is over, it is over.

2-37. More often than not, your soldiers do good things that deserve a pat onthe back. In the same way you do on-the-spot corrections (but obviously for

Figure 2-4. On-the-Spot Correction Steps


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


different reasons), praise your soldiers’ good work by telling them the specificaction or result observed, why it was good and encourage the soldier tocontinue. Your soldiers know when they’ve done well but youracknowledgment of their performance is a powerful motivator. It reinforcesstandards, builds soldiers’ pride and lets them know you notice the hard workthey do. It is also another indicator that you care about them.

"Correct errors in the use of judgment and initiative in such a way as toencourage the individual."

FM 22-10, Leadership (1951)

2-38. On-the-Spot Inspections. Making an informal, unscheduled check ofequipment, soldiers or quarters is called an on-the-spot inspection. Stopping tocheck the tag on a fire extinguisher as you walk through a maintenance bay isan example of an on-the-spot inspection. Another example is checking thecondition of the trash dumpster area in back of the orderly room. For anyinspection, the steps are the same.

• Preparation.• Conduct.

• Follow-up.

2-39. PCC/PCI. Pre-combat checks (PCCs) / Pre-combat inspections (PCIs)and Pre-execution checks are key to ensuring leaders, trainers and soldiers areadequately prepared to execute operations and training to Army standard.PCC/ PCIs are the bridge between pre-execution checks and execution oftraining. They are also detailed final checks that all units conduct before andduring execution of training and combat operations. Conduct PCC/PCIs at thebeginning of each event or exercise as part of troop leading procedures tocheck personnel, equipment, vehicles and mission knowledge. The chain ofcommand is responsible for developing, validating and verifying allPCC/PCIs. Pre-execution checks ensure that all planning and prerequisitetraining (soldier, leader and collective) are complete prior to the execution oftraining. They systematically prepare soldiers, trainers and resources to ensuretraining execution starts properly. Pre-execution checks provide the attentionto detail needed to use resources efficiently.

2-40. You are the key to inspections, checking soldier and unit readiness inpersonal hygiene and appearance, weapons, field equipment, displays andsanitary conditions. Inspections must be done regularly to help reinforcestandards and instill discipline. Regular, impartial inspections of importantareas develop confidence, teamwork and soldiers’ pride in themselves andtheir equipment.


FM 7-22.7


NONCOMMISSIONED, COMMISSIONED ANDWARRANT OFFICER RELATIONSHIPS2-41. An important part of your role as an NCO is how you relate tocommissioned officers. To develop this working relationship, NCOs andofficers must know the similarities of their respective duties andresponsibilities.

2-42. Commissioned officers hold a commission from the President of theUnited States, which authorizes them to act as the President’s representative incertain military matters. Laws, regulations, policies and customs limit theduties and responsibilities of commissioned officers, like NCOs and othergovernment officials. As the President’s representatives, commissionedofficers carry out the orders of the Commander in Chief as they are handeddown through the chain of command. In carrying out orders, commissionedofficers get considerable help, advice and assistance from NCOs. Bothcommissioned officers and NCOs share the same goal – accomplish the unit’smission. Figure 2-5 lists general duties of commissioned officers.

The Commissioned Officer

• Commands, establishes policy, plans and programs the work of theArmy.

• Concentrates on collective training, which will enable the unit toaccomplish its mission.

• Is primarily involved with unit operations, training and related activities.

• Concentrates on unit effectiveness and unit readiness.

• Pays particular attention to the standards of performance, training andprofessional development of officers as well as NCOs.

• Creates conditions – makes the time and other resources available –so the NCO can do the Job.

• Supports the NCO.

2-43. Warrant officers are highly specialized, single-tracked specialty officerswho receive their authority from the Secretary of the Army upon their initialappointment. However, Title 10 USC authorizes the commissioning ofWarrant Officers (WO1) upon promotion to Chief Warrant Officer (CW2).These commissioned warrant officers are direct representatives of thePresident of the United States. They derive their authority from the samesource as commissioned officers but remain specialists, in contrast tocommissioned officers who are generalists. Figure 2-6 lists general duties ofwarrant officers.

Figure 2-5. General Duties of Commissioned Officers


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


The Warrant Officer

• Provides quality advice, counsel and solutions to support the command.

• Executes policy and manages the Army’s system.

• Commands special-purpose units and tasks-organized operationalelements.

• Focuses on collective, leader and individual training.

• Operates, maintains, administers and manages the Army’s equipment,support activities and technical system.

• Concentrates on unit effectiveness and readiness.• Supports the NCO.

2-44. Warrant officers can and do command detachments, units, activities andvessels as well as lead, coach, train and counsel soldiers. As leaders andtechnical/tactical experts, warrant officers provide valuable skills, guidanceand expertise to commanders and organizations in their particular field.

2-45. Warrant officers provide mentorship, leadership and training to NCOs tosupport technical, tactical and mission-related tasks. The relationship betweenthe warrant officer and NCO is similar to the commissioned officer. They relyon each other for help, advice and assistance to accomplish the unit’s mission.

The Noncommissioned Officer

• Conducts the daily business of the Army within established orders,directives and policies.

• Focuses on individual training, which develops the capability toaccomplish the mission.

• Primarily involved with training and leading soldiers and teams.

• Ensures each subordinate team, NCO and soldier are prepared tofunction as a effective unit and each team member is well trained,highly motivated, ready and functioning.

• Concentrates on standards of performance, training and professionaldevelopment of NCOs and enlisted soldiers.

• Follows orders of officers and NCOs in the support channel.• Gets the job done.

Figure 2-6. General Duties of Warrant Officers

Figure 2-7. General Duties of Noncommissioned Officers


FM 7-22.7


2-46. Noncommissioned officers, the backbone of the Army, train, lead andtake care of enlisted soldiers. They receive their authority from their oaths ofoffice, law, rank structure, duty position, traditions and regulations. Thisauthority allows them to direct soldiers, take actions required to accomplishthe mission and enforce good order and discipline. NCOs represent officer andsometimes DA civilian leaders. They ensure their soldiers, along with theirpersonal equipment, are prepared to function as an effective unit and teammembers. While commissioned officers command, establish policy andmanage resources, NCOs conduct the Army’s daily business. Figure 2-7 listsgeneral duties of NCOs.

SPECIAL MENTION2-47. Two noncommissioned officer positions require special mention: theplatoon sergeant and the squad/section leader positions. The platoon sergeant’sposition is unique because the platoon sergeant must be ready to assume theresponsibilities of the platoon leader — an officer. The platoon sergeant takescommand in the platoon leader’s absence. Therefore, the platoon sergeant’stasks are essentially the same as those of the platoon leader. As acting platoonleader, the platoon sergeant assumes the same responsibilities as thecommissioned officer. The platoon leader and platoon sergeant mustunderstand each other; the platoon sergeant must be able to move in and out ofthe officer’s area of responsibility to prepare to replace the platoon leader ifnecessary. In many cases, the platoon sergeant has much more experience thanthe lieutenant does; one important task is to teach and advise the lieutenant.The platoon needs both the officer and the sergeant and they must know eachother without thinking.

There is naturally some overlap of duties andresponsibilities between officers and NCOs. This is a

necessary and desirable outcome of close cooperation andshould be a source of strength for a unit rather than the

cause of friction.

2-48. The second unique position is the squad, section or team leader. Possiblythe only NCO in the squad, section or team, he is the leader of his soldiers.This NCO is the first link in both the NCO support channel and chain ofcommand. They take their orders from both the platoon sergeant and platoonleader. This is another reason why the platoon sergeant and platoon leadermust know what each other are doing. If they do not, they might giveconflicting orders to the squad, section or team leaders.

2-49. Noncommissioned, commissioned and warrant officers depend on eachother and work together to accomplish the mission of the unit. It is impossible


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


for an officer to command an effective unit and accomplish the mission if theNCO doesn’t ensure the soldiers know their jobs. Commissioned officers,warrant officers and NCOs must advise, assist and learn from each other.Although the officer is held accountable for all that the unit does or fails to do,only by working together with the NCO can he assure the job will getaccomplished.

THE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER SUPPORTCHANNEL2-50. The NCO support channel is subordinate to and supportive of the chainof command. The NCO support channel is not an independent channel. It isincumbent on the users of this channel to ensure that the chain of command iskept informed of actions implemented through the NCO support channel andto eliminate the possibility of the NCO support channel operating outside ofcommand policy and directives. Problems should be brought to the attention ofthe chain of command and resolved through a coordinated effort. Since theNCO support channel should be operating in accordance with establishedcommand policy and directives, conflicts should be minimal and easilyresolved.

2-51. Prior to 1977 the NCO support channel was regarded as informal.However, AR 600-20 formalized the NCO support channel and expanded itsfunctions in December 1976. The NCO support channel is now directive innature within established policies and orders. Because of this, commanders areseeing the senior NCO more actively participating in all unit activities andtasks. The NCO support channel (leadership chain) parallels and reinforces thechain of command. NCO leaders work with and support the commissioned andwarrant officers of their chain of command.

2-52. In units at the battalion level and higher, the NCO support channel is thecommunication and supervision that begins with the command sergeant major(CSM), extends through first sergeants and platoon sergeants and ends withsection chiefs, squad leaders, or team leaders. In addition to passinginformation, this channel is used for executing the commander’s orders andgetting routine, but important, jobs done. Most often it is used to put intoeffect policies and procedures and to enforce standards of performance,training, appearance and conduct.

2-53. The connection between the chain of command and the NCO supportchannel is the senior NCO. Commanders issue orders through the chain ofcommand, but senior NCOs must know and understand the orders to issueeffective implementing instructions through the NCO support channel.Although the first sergeant and command sergeants major are not part of the


FM 7-22.7


formal chain of command, leaders should consult them on individual soldiermatters.

2-54. Successful officers have a good leader and NCO relationship with theirfirst sergeants and command sergeants major. This leaves the commander freeto plan, make decisions and program future training and operations. The needfor such a relationship applies to platoon leaders and platoon sergeants as wellas to staff officers and NCOs. Senior NCOs have extensive experience insuccessfully completing missions and dealing with enlisted soldier issues.Also, senior NCOs can monitor organizational activities at all levels, takecorrective action to keep the organization within the boundaries of thecommander’s intent, or report situations that require the attention of the officerleadership. Regardless of where the information or task begins – in the chainof command or in the NCO support channel – keep the counterpartinformed. A positive relationship between officers and NCOs createsconditions for success.

2-55. The NCO support channel assists the chain of command inaccomplishing the following:

• Transmitting, instilling and ensuring the efficacy of the professional Armyethic.

• Planning and conducting the day-to-day unit operations within prescribedpolicies and directives.

• Training enlisted soldiers in their MOS as well as in the basic skills andattributes of a soldier.

• Supervising unit physical fitness training and ensuring that soldiers complywith the weight and appearance standards in AR 600-9 and AR 670-1.

• Teaching soldiers the history of the Army, to include military customs,courtesies and traditions.

• Caring for individual soldiers and their families both on and off duty.• Teaching soldiers the mission of the unit and developing individual training

programs to support the mission.• Accounting for and maintaining individual arms and equipment of enlisted

soldiers and unit equipment under their control.• Administering and monitoring the NCO professional development program

and other unit training programs.• Achieving and maintaining Army Values.• Advising the commander on rewards and punishment for enlisted soldiers.

2-56. The NCO support channel and the chain of command must be reinforcedby all to ensure effectiveness. It is the channel of communication andsupervision from the command sergeant major to the most junior enlistedsoldier in the unit. Commanders may further specify responsibilities and


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


authority of their NCOs to their staffs and subordinates. Your contribution tothe NCO support channel ensures its overall success.

“…the routine daily business of the Army is noncommissioned officerbusiness, that is to say, execution of established policies and standardspertaining to the performance, training and conduct of enlisted personnel isthe responsibility of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps. The establishmentof those policies and standards is the responsibility of the officer corps.”

CSM J. F. La Voie


2-57. Established in 1966, the Sergeant Major of the Army (SMA) is thesenior enlisted position of the Army. The sergeant major in this position servesas the senior enlisted advisor and consultant to the Chief of Staff of the Army.The SMA provides information on problems affecting enlisted personnel andproposes solutions to these problems concerning standards, professionaldevelopment, growth and advancement of NCOs, morale, training, pay,promotions and quality of life for soldiers and family members.

2-58. Using command information channels, the SMA keeps soldiers currenton important NCO issues and through the public media informs the Americanpeople of the Army mission, soldiers’ accomplishments and future enlistedtrends. The SMA directs NCO support channel activities through the majorcommands’ CSMs by using written and verbal communications. The SMAalso presents the enlisted viewpoint to Congress, DA boards and committees,meets with military and civilian organizations to discuss enlisted affairs, andreceives and represents Army enlisted personnel at appropriate ceremonies.


2-59. The Command Sergeant Major is the senior NCO of the command atbattalion or higher levels. The CSM carries out policies and standards onperformance, training, appearance and conduct of enlisted personnel. TheCSM gives advice and initiates recommendations to the commander and staffin matters pertaining to enlisted personnel. A unit, installation, or higherheadquarters CSM directs the activities of that NCO support channel. Thesupport channel functions orally through the CSMs or first sergeant’s call andnormally does not involve written instruction. The CSM administers the unitNoncommissioned Officer Development Program (NCODP), normallythrough written directives and the NCO support channel. As the senior NCOof the command, the CSM is the training professional within the unit,overseeing and driving the entire training program. The CSM assists thecommander in determining leader tasks and training for NCOs.


FM 7-22.7


2-60. The CSM and commander jointly coordinate and develop the unit’sMission Essential Task List (METL) and individual training tasks to create ateam approach to battle-focused training. The CSM and NCO leaders thenselect the specific individual tasks, which support each collective task to betrained during this same period. CSMs use command information channels toinform, express concerns on enlisted issues and build esprit. They alsorepresent the commander at military and civilian functions to maintain goodcommunity relations.

2-61. The Sergeant Major is often the key enlisted member of the staffelements at battalion and higher levels. The sergeant major’s experience andability are equal to that of the unit command sergeant major, but leadershipinfluence is generally limited to those directly under their charge. The sergeantmajor is a subject matter expert in his technical field, primary advisor onpolicy development, analytical reviewer of regulatory guidance and oftenfulfills the duties of the command sergeant major in his absence. Sergeantsmajor also serve in non-staff and leadership positions such as Special ForcesTeam Sergeant Major, instructor at the Sergeants Major Academy or as theState Senior Enlisted Advisor.

Colors and Color GuardsFlags are almost as old as civilization itself. Imperial Egypt and thearmies of Babylon and Assyria followed the colors of their kings.Ancient texts mention banners and standards. The flag that identifiednations usually were based on the personal or family heraldry of thereigning monarch. As autocracies faded or disappeared, dynasticcolors were no longer suitable and national flags came into being.These national flags such as the Union Jack of Great Britain, theTricolor of France and the Stars and Stripes are relatively new tohistory. When the struggle for independence united the colonies, theregrew a desire for a single flag to represent the new Nation. The firstflag borne by our Army representing the 13 colonies was the grandunion flag. It was raised over the Continental Army at Cambridge,Massachusetts, on 2 January 1776. The Stars and Stripes as we nowknow it was born on 14 June 1777.The flags carried by Color-bearing units are called the national andorganizational colors. The Colors may be carried in any formation inwhich two or more company honor guards or representative elementsof a command participate. The Command Sergeant Major isresponsible for the safeguarding, care and display of theorganizational color. He is also responsible for the selection, trainingand performance of the Color bearers and Color guards.The honorary position for the CSM is two steps to the rear andcentered on the Color guard.


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


Because of the importance and visibility of the task, it is an honor tobe a member of the Color guard. The detail may consist of three toeight soldiers, usually NCOs. The senior (Color) sergeant carries theNational Color and commands the Color guard unless a person isdesignated as the Color sergeant. The Color sergeant gives thenecessary commands for the movements and for rendering honors.The most important aspect of the selection, training and performanceof the Color guard is the training. Training requires precision in drills,manual of arms, customs and courtesies and wear and appearance ofuniforms and insignia.

A well trained color guard at the front of unit's formation signifies asense of teamwork, confidence, pride, alertness, attention to detail,esprit de corps and discipline. The Color Guard detail should performits functions as much as possible in accordance with ARs 600-25,670-1 and 840-10 and FM 22-5.


2-62. The First Sergeant is the senior NCO in companies, batteries and troops.The position of first sergeant is similar to that of the CSM in importance,responsibility and prestige. As far back as the Revolutionary War period, firstsergeants have enforced discipline, fostered loyalty and commitment in theirsoldiers, maintained duty rosters and made morning reports to their companycommanders. Since today’s first sergeants maintain daily contact with and areresponsible for training and ensuring the health and welfare of all of the unit’ssoldiers and families, this position requires extraordinary leadership andprofessional competence.

2-63. First sergeants hold formations, instruct platoon sergeants and assist thecommander in daily unit operations. Though first sergeants supervise routineadministrative duties their principle duty is training soldiers. The CSM, firstsergeant and other key NCOs, must understand the organization’s collectivemission essential tasks during METL-based training. Through NCOdevelopment programs, performance counseling and other guidance, firstsergeants are the Army’s most important mentors in developing subordinateNCOs.

2-64. The Master Sergeant serves as the principle NCO in staff elements atbattalion or higher levels. Although not charged with the enormous leadershipresponsibilities of the first sergeant, the master sergeant dispatches leadershipand executes other duties with the same professionalism as the first sergeant.


2-65. While “Platoon Sergeant” is a duty position, not a rank, the platoonsergeant is the primary assistant and advisor to the platoon leader, with theresponsibility of training and caring for soldiers. The platoon sergeant helps


FM 7-22.7


the commander to train the platoon leader and in that regard has an enormouseffect on how that young officer perceives NCOs for the rest of his career. Theplatoon sergeant takes charge of the platoon in the absence of the platoonleader. As the lowest level senior NCO involved in the company METL,platoon sergeants teach collective and individual tasks to soldiers in theirsquads, crews or equivalent small units.

2-66. The Sergeant First Class (SFC), may serve in a position subordinate tothe platoon sergeant or may serve as the NCO in charge (NCOIC) of thesection with all the attendant responsibilities and duties of the platoonsergeant. A platoon sergeant or sergeant first class generally has extensivemilitary experience and can make accurate decisions in the best interest of themission and the soldier.

2-67. Utilizing tough, realistic and intellectually and physically challengingperformance-oriented training to excite and motivate soldiers, the platoonsergeant ensures Army standards are met and maintained. Additionally, theplatoon sergeant must conduct cross training to promote critical wartime skillswithin the unit, evaluate the effectiveness of the platoon and provide trainingfeedback to the commander and first sergeant during After-Action Reviews(AAR) on all unit collective training.


2-68. Staff Sergeants, Sergeants and Corporals are normally squad, section andteam leaders and are a critical link in the NCO channel. These NCOs live andwork with their soldiers every day and are responsible for their health, welfareand safety. These squad, section and team leaders ensure that their soldiersmeet standards in personal appearance and teach them to maintain and accountfor their individual and unit equipment and property. The NCO enforcesstandards and develops and trains soldiers daily in MOS skills and unitmissions.

“NCOs should make it a point to drop by the barracks on and off duty to visitsoldiers and check on their welfare.”

SMA Jack L. Tilley

2-69. The NCO teaches individual and collective training, develops unitcohesion, fosters the values of loyalty and commitment and builds spirit andconfidence. The NCO evaluates performance oriented training and throughcoaching and counseling grooms young soldiers for future positions ofincreased responsibility. Squad, section and team leaders teach everythingfrom the making of sound and timely decisions to physical training to ethicsand values. You, corporals and sergeants, are the basic trainer of today’ssoldiers.


Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO


YOU ARE A NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER2-70. You as an NCO have a tough, demanding, but very rewarding job. Thesoldiers you lead are the heart of the Army. You lead soldiers at the actionlevel where the important day-to-day fundamental work of the Army ismission oriented. Because you live and work directly with and among soldiers,you have the best opportunity to know them as they really are. You are thefirst to identify and teach soldiers how to best use their strengths and helpthem detect and overcome their shortcomings. You are in the best position tosecure the trust and confidence of soldiers by leading by example. You havethe advantage of a deeper understanding of soldier behavior because you werepromoted directly from the ranks that you now lead and serve. Your soldierswill challenge you each and every day and you will be rewarded by the respectthey hold for your ability as a leader. You will be successful as they followyour leadership in the difficult business of getting ready to fight and win ourNation’s wars.


FM 7-22.7




Chapter 3


Leading soldiers is hard work, long hours, often dangerous,under grueling conditions – and tempers the steel of the

Nation’s resolve

Learn......................................................................................... 3-3Be – Know – Do......................................................................... 3-4

Be .......................................................................................... 3-4Know...................................................................................... 3-5Do .......................................................................................... 3-8Mentorship ............................................................................ 3-11

Discipline ................................................................................ 3-14Intended and Unintended Consequences............................... 3-16Putting it Together .................................................................. 3-17

For more information on Direct Leadership see FM 6-22 (22-100) ArmyLeadership, Chapters 1-5.



FM 7-22.7


3-1. You are a Noncommissioned Officer — a leader. The stripes you wear setyou apart from other soldiers. Every soldier must know and do his job, but notevery soldier is an NCO. An NCO leads — from the front. The Army mustfight and win the Nation’s wars. It cannot succeed without qualified, tough anddedicated NCOs. Your unit may be called upon to execute a wide range ofdifferent missions from supporting relief operations to peacekeeping to actualcombat in a war. Across the full spectrum of conflict, the Army’s successbegins with you, the NCO.

Figure 3-1. The Army Leadership Framework

Leadership is influencing people – by providing purpose, direction andmotivation – while operating to accomplish the mission and improving theorganization.

FM 6-22, Army Leadership

LoyaltyDutyRespectSelfless ServiceHonorIntegrityPersonalCourage











To Achieve Excellence

THE LEADERof Character and Competence Acts…




3-2. As a noncommissioned officer, you are the first line of Army leadership.Considering the Army as a whole, NCOs outnumber commissioned officersnearly three to one. NCOs directly supervise about 80 percent of the soldiers incombat divisions. You will spend more time with soldiers than your officersdo. With this in mind, you must always lead by example. Earn the respect andconfidence of your soldiers, as well as that of your officers. Respect andconfidence don’t come automatically with the stripes – you will have to workhard at earning them.

“Think about what it means to be a sergeant. It boils down to two things …you have to train soldiers and you have to lead soldiers.”

SMA Robert E. Hall

3-3. Noncommissioned officers gain the respect and confidence of soldiers intwo basic ways – by demonstrating technical and tactical proficiency and bycaring for soldiers and their families. You have to care for your soldiers andstill accomplish the mission. This is not as hard as it seems at first – onenaturally leads to the other. Understand that caring for your soldiers does notmean giving them more time off or allowing them to execute tasks belowstandard because they are tired. It does mean training them to standard, not totime. It means ensuring they know their individual skills and making hard butcorrect decisions. It means helping them through problems – personal andprofessional – so they can fully concentrate on their training and duties and,above all, it means leading by example – doing all that you require yoursoldiers to do and treating soldiers with dignity and respect. All these actionscreate in your soldiers the determination to win and that determination isessential to accomplishing difficult missions.

“The American soldier is a proud one and he demands professionalcompetence in his leaders. In battle, he wants to know that the job is going tobe done right, with no unnecessary casualties. The noncommissioned officerwearing the chevron is supposed to be the best soldier in the platoon and heis supposed to know how to perform all the duties expected of him. TheAmerican soldier expects his sergeant to be able to teach him how to do hisjob. And he expects even more from his officers.”

General of the Army Omar N. Bradley

LEARN3-4. Leaders are not born, they are molded – by training, practice andexperience. There are many excellent books and manuals on leadership;however, Field Manual 6-22 (22-100), Army Leadership, is the Army’scapstone publication on leadership. You should study FM 6-22 and apply whatit says, particularly regarding direct leadership. Read and reread books by orabout combat leaders. Their experiences will give you some insights on how to


FM 7-22.7


approach problems you face. Knowledge of military history is a goodconfidence builder.

“A man cannot lead without determination, without the will and the desire tolead. He cannot do it without studying, reading, observing, learning. He mustapply himself to gain the goal- to develop the talent for military leadership….Leaders are developed! They are guided by others; but they are made-largely self-made.”

MSG Frank K. Nicolas

3-5. Observe other leaders in your unit, especially those who are successful.Learn from them by observing and asking questions. Study yourself too,learning from your own successes and failures. Everyone who wears theuniform of the US Army must be a WARRIOR, first and last. In today’soperational environment, there are no front lines; there is no secure rear area.Every soldier must be prepared to attack or defend and win regardless of theconditions. That means conducting full spectrum operations including offense,defense, stability and support. Our Nation depends on the NCO to preparesoldiers to do so.

BE – KNOW – DO3-6. Noncommissioned officers lead by example. You must BE, KNOW andDO to be effective. However, there are some basics involved here: Character— Competence — Actions.


3-7. Character is an inner strength that helps you know what is right and whatis wrong. It is what gives you the desire and fortitude to do what is right evenin the toughest situations and it gives you the courage to keep doing what isright regardless of the consequences.

"The test of character is not 'hanging in' when you expect light at the end ofthe tunnel, but performance of duty and persistence of example when youknow no light is coming.”

ADM James B. Stockdale

3-8. Others see character in you by your behavior. What you do speaks louderthan what you say — set the example. Understand Army values and live them.Develop leader attributes and teach these to your soldiers. This may or maynot be easy, but it is vitally important to the success of the Army, your unit andyour soldiers.




"The Army [depends] on competent people who have the strength ofcharacter to secure our vital national interests and the foresight to continuechange to remain the world's best."

GEN John N. Abrams

3-9. One of the most obvious ways to demonstrate character is to be honest.Tell it like it is – not how you think someone wants to hear it. The Army andyour soldiers want, need and deserve the truth. If you make a mistake, admit it;don’t sacrifice your integrity. If something is wrong, you must be willing tosay so, even to superior NCOs and officers. Do so in an objective,straightforward manner; present the facts. This often takes moral courage.What you have to say may not be easy or even welcomed, but your candor isnecessary to develop and maintain trust. It is also necessary for soldiers toknow whether they have met the standard and for leaders to know the truestatus of units. A mark of loyalty is a burning desire to help the unit and one’ssoldiers get better at their tasks. That demands honesty. Make it a habit to becandid – in battle, lives will depend on it.

“It has long seemed to me that the hard decisions are not the ones you makein the heat of battle. Far harder to make are those involved in speaking yourmind about some hare-brained scheme which proposes to commit troops toaction under conditions where failure seems almost certain and the onlyresults will be the needless sacrifice of priceless lives.”

GEN Matthew B. Ridgway


3-10. You need to know a great deal to properly lead soldiers. You must havea number of skills to train soldiers and to lead them in tough situations. Knowhow to talk to your soldiers and get them to talk. Be able to think and planahead and be able to visualize events before they occur. Know everythingabout your equipment and tactics and how to make decisions based on theinformation you have available.

Know Your Job

3-11. To be a good noncommissioned officer you must know your jobexceptionally well. This means you must be proficient in the employment,care, cleaning and maintenance of vehicles, weapons and equipment assignedto your unit — technical skills. As Army Transformation progresses, you mayreceive new equipment, learn new doctrine, or undergo organizationalchanges. You will certainly have to absorb and pass on larger and largerquantities of information. Know all the tactics your unit uses in battle. Realizethat in the contemporary operational environment, there are no secure areas –an enemy might attack a logistics site in the rear areas as readily as a frontline


FM 7-22.7


combat arms unit. That means being adaptive to the situation and respondingappropriately.

3-12. Understand and conduct the day-to-day requirements of soldiering in thefield and in garrison. Show your soldiers each day that you can do everythingthey do. If you’re a really good NCO you’ll be better at all those things thanany of your soldiers. This is the first step in leading by example.

Know Fieldcraft

3-13. Being an expert in fieldcraft reduces the likelihood your soldiers willbecome casualties. The requirement to do one’s job in a field environment isone of the differences between soldiering and most civilian occupations.Likewise, the requirement that Army leaders make sure their soldiers take careof themselves and provide them with the means to do so is unique. TheSoldier’s Manual of Common Tasks lists the individual skills all soldiers mustmaster to operate effectively in the field. FM 3-21.75 (21-75), Combat Skills ofthe Soldier is another good source. Those skills include everything from howto stay healthy, to how to pitch a tent, to how to run a heater. Some MOSsrequire other skills, too.

“Fieldcraft, fieldcraft, fieldcraft. Training your soldiers to fight the enemyand not the elements will keep them focused and conserve their energy forwarfighting.”

GEN Eric K. Shinseki

3-14. You gain proficiency in fieldcraft through schooling, study and practice.Once learned, fieldcraft skills are not difficult to accomplish. But they aresometimes neglected during exercises, when everyone knows that the exercisewill end at a specific time, sick and injured soldiers are always evacuated andthe adversary isn’t using real ammunition. During peacetime, it’s up to you toenforce tactical discipline to make sure your soldiers practice the fieldcraftskills that will keep them from becoming casualties later. Soldiers need to beconfident in their ability to take care of themselves and their equipment in thefield to continue the mission.

Know Yourself

3-15. As a noncommissioned officer your job requires you to accomplish taskswith your soldiers and your equipment under the most difficult conditions:uncertainty, confusion, stress and fear of battle. In those challengingcirc*mstances your courage and that of your soldiers will be tested to the limit.You can also expect your own fear and that of your soldiers to complicategetting things done in crisis situations – in battle, in military operations otherthan war, or in training. But be positive, especially with your soldiers and




always exhibit the determination to prevail no matter what the odds or howdesperate the situation may be.

“Display the WILL TO WIN by your actions, words, tone of voice, by yourappearance and by the look in your eyes. Pay no attention to the noise, thesmoke, the explosions, the screams of the wounded, the dead lying aroundyou. That is all NORMAL in battle!”

LTG Harold G. Moore

3-16. Courage in battle doesn’t mean an absence of fear. Fear is a naturalreaction to combat and unknown situations, but courage is getting the job donedespite the presence of fear. This is a very hard thing to do. This abilityderives from many contributing factors, but one of the most important is self-confidence. The hard work you do to master required skills and train yoursoldiers becomes a conviction that you’ll act correctly and properly even understressful conditions. Know your own capabilities and believe in yourself andyour training. Understand right now that courage – yours and your soldiers’ –is not a substitute for proper training, working equipment or firepower. Puttingrounds on target quickly and accurately is the best antidote to fear, but itrequires well trained, disciplined soldiers to accomplish.

3-17. The ambiguous nature of the operational environment requires Armyleaders who are self-aware and adaptive. Leaders with self-awarenessunderstand their operational environment, can assess their own capabilities,determine their own strengths and weaknesses and actively learn to overcometheir weaknesses. Adaptive leaders must first be self-aware; they must havethe ability to recognize change in their operating environment, identify thosechanges and learn how to adapt to succeed in their new environment. Self-awareness and adaptability work together. A leader who fails to adapt cannotlearn to accept change and modify behavior brought about by changes in theoperational environment.

3-18. Today's operational environment demands more from Army leaders thanever before. The Army needs adaptive leaders—leaders that can successfullyoperate across the range of military operations. It needs adaptive leaders whocan be home one day and, within hours, conduct military operations anywherein the world. The Army needs adaptive leaders who can operate in alldimensions of the operational environment—from hand-to-hand combat tooffensive information operations.

Know Your Soldiers3-19. A key part of your job as a noncommissioned officer is to know yoursoldiers. It is essential that you know how your soldiers will behave in battleunder stress and uncertainty. To do this you must know how well trained theyare, how well they work together as team members and how they react to fear,


FM 7-22.7


uncertainty and stress. As a leader, you should demonstrate genuine concernfor the well-being of your soldiers and for their personal and professionaldevelopment, progress, problems, concerns and convictions. Know them.Know their goals and meet their families. This is not to coddle or cater to thesoldiers but that you might, in a soldierly way, build a team of confident, welltrained individual soldiers who operate as one and whose dedication toaccomplishing the mission overrides any other concern.

“There is only one way for NCOs to get to know their soldiers and that isthrough constant communication and not putting up invisible walls thatsoldiers are afraid to pass. We must let our soldiers know that we are alwaysthere for them and they must know they can come to their leaders with anyproblem… Bottom line: NCOs must be user friendly.”

CSM Mary E. Sutherland


3-20. Do means to take action.

“As an NCO, you have to make split-second decisions. When you’re acombat oriented NCO, you don’t have to stop and think – you’re thinking allthe time.”

MSG (Ret.) Roy Benavidez

3-21. You make decisions every day. You rely on your judgment andexperience to do so but you also have to consider the information you haveavailable on any specific problem. While new technology and informationsystems provide larger amounts of information more quickly than ever, leadersmust sift through all that information and ultimately make accurateassessments and timely decisions.

Troop Leading Procedures

3-22. The decision making tool for direct leaders is called The Troop LeadingProcedures. These steps help you organize your efforts in planning andexecuting your mission. A copy for your leader book is in Appendix C.

a. STEP 1. Receive the Mission. This may be in the form of a warning order(WARNORD), an operation order (OPORD), or a fragmentary order (FRAGO).Analyze it using the factors of Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, Time available andCivilian considerations (METT-TC).

(1) Use no more than one third of the available time for planning and issuing theoperation order.

(2) Determine what are the specified tasks (you were told to accomplish), theessential tasks (must accomplish to succeed) and the implied tasks (necessarybut not spelled out).

(3) Plan preparation activity backward from the time of execution.




b. STEP 2. Issue a Warning Order. Provide initial instructions to your soldiers in aWARNORD. Include all available information and update as often as necessary.Certain information must be in the warning order:

(1) The mission or nature of the operation.(2) Participants in the operation.(3) Time of the operation.(4) Time and place for issuance of the operation order.

c. STEP 3. Make a Tentative Plan. Gather and consider key information for use inmaking a tentative plan. Update the information continuously and refine the plan asneeded. Use this plan as the starting point for coordination, reconnaissance andmovement instructions. Consider the factors of METT-TC:

(1) Mission. Review the mission to ensure you fully understand all tasks.(2) Enemy. Consider the type, size, organization, tactics and equipment of theenemy. Identify the greatest threat to the mission and their greatest vulnerability.(3) Terrain. Consider the effects of terrain and weather using observation,concealment, obstacles, key terrain and avenues of approach (Oco*kA).(4) Troops available. Consider the strength of subordinate units, the characteristicsof weapon systems and the capabilities of attached elements when assigning tasksto subordinate units.(5) Time available. Refine the allocation of time based on the tentative plan andany changes to the situation.(6) Civilian considerations. Consider the impact of the local population or othercivilians on operations.

d. STEP 4. Start Necessary Movement. Get the unit moving to where it needs to be assoon as possible.

e. STEP 5. Reconnoiter. If time allows, make a personal reconnaissance to verify yourterrain analysis, adjust the plan, confirm the usability of routes and time any criticalmovements. Otherwise, make a map reconnaissance.

f. STEP 6. Complete the Plan. Complete the plan based on the reconnaissance and anychanges in the situation. Review the plan to ensure it meets the commander’s intent andrequirements of the mission.

g. STEP 7. Issue the Complete Order. Platoon and smaller unit leaders normally issueoral operations orders. A format for the five paragraph field order is in Appendix C.

(1) To aid soldiers in understanding the concept for the mission, try to issue theorder within sight of the objective or on the defensive terrain. When this is notpossible, use a terrain model or sketch.(2) Ensure that your soldiers understand the mission, the commander's intent, theconcept of the operation and their assigned tasks. You might require soldiers torepeat all or part of the order or demonstrate on the model or sketch theirunderstanding of the operation.

h. STEP 8. Supervise. Supervise preparation for combat by conducting rehearsals andinspections.


FM 7-22.7


(1) Rehearsals. Use rehearsals to practice essential tasks, reveal weaknesses orproblems in the plan and improve soldier understanding of the concept of theoperation.

• Rehearsals should include subordinate leaders briefing theirplanned actions in sequence.

• Conduct rehearsals on terrain that resembles the actual ground andin similar light conditions.

(2) Inspections. Conduct pre-combat checks and inspections. Inspect—• Weapons, ammunition, uniforms and equipment.• Mission-essential equipment.• Soldier's understanding of the mission and their specific

responsibilities.• Communications.• Rations and water.• Camouflage.• Deficiencies noted during earlier inspections.

3-23. In planning and preparing for missions you supervise the execution oftasks and insist on meeting the standard. You ensure your soldiers have whatthey need to do the job and make sure they take care of their equipment andthemselves. This really means checking. You check your soldiers andsubordinate leaders before, during and after operations; not to “micro-manage”them, but to get an accurate status of your soldiers and because their well-being is important to you.

The Five P’s: Prior Planning Prevents Poor Performance


3-24. Well trained soldiers know what they are supposed to do, but understress, their instincts might tell them to do something different. The tired,hungry, cold, wet, disoriented or scared soldier will more often do the wrongthing—stop moving, lie down, retreat—than the soldier not under that kind ofstress. This is when you, the leader, must step in—when things are fallingapart, when there seems to be no hope—and get the job done. A leaderdevelops soldiers’ pride in themselves and in the unit to get through the toughjobs.

“Pride gets you up the hill.”

CSM Clifford West


3-25. You counsel and mentor your soldiers to develop their leadershipabilities and soldier skills to their full potential. You spend time and effort tobuild the team you lead and improve unit cohesion and foster an ethicalclimate. You continue to learn and adapt to a changing world and Army.





3-26. Mentorship is an informal, personal and proactive commitment to fostergrowth in soldiers based on mutual trust and respect. The relationship issustained through active listening, caring and sharing of professionalknowledge and life experiences for the betterment of the individual and theArmy. It is a one-on-one way of helping a subordinate develop into a betterleader. Mentorship is more than fulfilling a soldier’s responsibilities as aleader. It is helping our great NCOs get even better. After all, today’scorporals and sergeants will be the first sergeants and sergeants major of theObjective Force.

3-27. Mentorship begins with setting the right example by showing soldiers amature example of values, attributes and skills in action. Setting the exampleencourages them to develop their own character and leader attributesaccordingly. Seeking advice or assistance from a mentor is not a sign ofweakness, but is evidence of a desire to become a better soldier and leader(See Chapter 5 for more on mentorship).

“A mentor should be someone you respect. It should be someone you feel youcan go to and admit you’ve done something wrong and expect them to giveyou good recommendations on how to fix it… If you’ve picked your mentor,you’re not going to be thin-skinned when they help you see your ownshortcomings. You’re going to them to get help; that’s the whole reason forhaving a mentor. When criticism is coming from someone you look up to andrespect, you’re going to be more receptive to your mentor’s suggestions andadvice on how to fix the problem.”

CSM Anthony Williams


3-28. To be an Army leader, you also must be a teacher. You give yoursoldiers knowledge and skills all the time: in formal classroom settings andthrough your example. To be an effective teacher, you must first beprofessionally competent then create conditions in which your soldiers canlearn. However, teaching is not easy. Just because you can pull the engine outof a tank doesn’t mean you will be any good at teaching other people to do it.Good teaching techniques and methods may not correspond with how goodyou are on the job; you must know both the skills related to the subject andanother set of teaching skills.

3-29. You must also be able to train your soldiers to high levels of proficiencyin their individual and team skills. You are the coach; your soldiers are theteam; success in battle is the payoff. Think ahead to the day one of yoursoldiers or subordinate leaders has to replace you. That is the way combat is;soldiers at all levels must pick up, carry on and get the mission done as their


FM 7-22.7


leaders become casualties. Make sure your soldiers are ready if you die inbattle – one of them has to lead the others or they could all be casualties andthe unit will fail in its mission.

Build the team

3-30. The Army is a team. Each of its organizations and units are themselvesteams making up the Army. You build teamwork and unit proficiency toprepare for the day when your unit will have to fight. It’s important to realizethat the national cause, the purpose of the mission and other larger issuesprobably won’t be evident from the battlefield. It’s therefore equally importantto know that soldiers will perform their duties for the other people in theirsquad, section or team. Your job as an NCO is to bring each member into theteam because you may someday ask that person for extraordinary effort.

3-31. Teambuilding starts with your competence as a leader. Training togetherbuilds collective competence and trust is a product of that competence.Soldiers learn to trust their leaders if the leaders know how to do their jobs andact consistently — if they say what they mean and mean what they say — andthat trust builds confidence. Continued training to standard makes yoursoldiers confident in themselves and – this is key – confident in each otherbecause they know they can depend on each other.

“You must give [soldiers] reasons to have confidence and pride inthemselves, in their leaders and in their units. Only then will you haveloyalty.”

SMA George W. Dunaway

3-32. Leaders and soldiers all have contributions in teambuilding. Figure 3-2lists actions you must do to pull a team together, get it going in the rightdirection and keep it moving. And that list only hints at the work that liesahead as you get your team to work together. Teambuilding also occurs inathletics, social activities and unit functions like a Dining-In or Dining-Out.Ultimately, each of your soldiers must know that their contribution isimportant and valued. They must know that you’ll train them and listen to theirconcerns. They don’t want you to let them get away with substandardperformance. So constantly observe, counsel, develop and listen; you must beevery bit the team player you want your soldiers to be — and more.




Figure 3-2. The Teambuilding Stages





• Achieve belonging andacceptance• Set personal and familyconcerns• Learn about leaders andother members

• Listen to and care for subordinates• Design effective reception andorientation• Communicate• Reward positive contributions• Set example

• Talk with each soldier• Reassure with calm presence• Communicate vital safety tips• Provide stable situation• Establish buddy system• Assist soldiers to deal withimmediate problems

• Trust and encourage trust• Allow growth while keeping control• Identify and channel emergingleaders• Establish clear lines of authority• Establish individual and unit goals• Train as a unit for mission• Build pride through accomplishment• Acquire self-evaluation/self-assessment habits• Be fair and give responsibility

• Train as a unit for combat• Demonstrate competence• Know the soldiers• Pace subordinate battlefieldintegration• Provide stable unit climate• Emphasize safety awareness forimproved readiness

• Demonstrate trust• Focus on teamwork, training &maintaining• Respond to subordinate problems• Devise more challenging training• Build pride and spirit through unitsports, social & spiritual activities

• Observe and enforce sleepdiscipline• Sustain safety awareness• Inform soldiers• Know and deal with soldiers’perceptions• Keep soldiers productively busy• Use in-process reviews (IPRs) andAfter-Action Reviews (AARs)• Act decisively in face of panic

• Face the uncertainty ofwar• Cope with fear ofunknown injury and death• Adjust to sights andsounds of war• Adjust to separation fromhome and family

• Trust leaders and othermembers• Find close friends• Learn who is in charge• Accept the way things aredone• Adjust to feelings abouthow things ought to bedone• Overcome family-versus-unit conflict

• Survive• Demonstrate competence• Become a team memberquickly• Learn about the enemy• Learn about the battlefield• Avoid life-threateningmistakes

• Trust others• Share ideas and feelingsfreely• Assist other teammembers• Sustain trust andconfidence• Share mission and values

• Adjust to continuousoperations• Cope with casualties• Adjust to enemy actions• Overcome boredom• Avoid rumors• Control fear, anger,despair and panic









FM 7-22.7


NCO RecognitionNCOs who demonstrate the highest qualities of leadership, professionalismand regard for the welfare of their soldiers may be recognized in unit andMACOM NCO of the Month, Quarter or Year competitions or by induction intoelite organizations – the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club and the SergeantMorales Club. This is a privilege earned by a few exceptionalnoncommissioned officers. Winners of such boards or members of these clubsexemplify leadership characterized by personal concern for the needs, training,development and welfare of soldiers and concern for soldiers’ families.Those NCOs selected by these boards or inducted into these clubs are not‘punching tickets’. Rather, it is recognition of outstanding NCOs. These NCOshave contributed significantly to the development of a professional NCO Corpsand a combat ready Army.

DISCIPLINE3-33. If leadership is the lifeblood of the Army then discipline is its heart.Discipline isn’t just responding to orders or imposing punishment forinfractions but is something leaders and soldiers build together. It is the desireto do what is right even if it is difficult or dangerous. It doesn’t matter if the‘boss’ isn’t watching; the task will be done; and done properly. It is thedesire to accomplish the task well, not because of fear of punishment, butbecause of PRIDE in one’s unit and oneself. Discipline means putting the taskof the unit – the team – ahead of personal desires.

"Our troops are capable of the best discipline. If they lack it, leadership isfaulty."

GEN Dwight D. Eisenhower, quoting LTG Leslie J. McNair in 1941

3-34. Discipline in the Army is important because of the stakes involved. Incivilian life, a lack of discipline may cause some discomfort or, at worst, getone in trouble with the law. In the Army, however, poor discipline could resultin the loss of soldiers’ lives. That is too high a price to pay.

The discipline on which a successful Army must be built is a kind that willendure when every semblance of authority has vanished. When the leadershave fallen.... When the only power that remains is the strong andunconquered spirit of the team.

The Old Sergeant’s Conferences, 1930

3-35. Discipline in the Army is one of the most basic elements of warfighting.Its purpose is to make soldiers so well trained that they (and you) will carryout orders quickly and intelligently even under the most difficult conditions.Insistence on doing things properly adds and enhances military discipline.Ensuring your soldiers wear their uniforms properly, march well or repeat




tasks until they do them correctly are part of military discipline. This is notharassment or nit picking. Proper and prompt execution of orders will savelives in combat. Don’t walk by a deficiency – do something about it. Know therules of engagement and ensure your soldiers know them.

Men like to serve in well-disciplined units; it is a guarantee of an increasedchance of survival...

TGGS Special Text No. 1, Leadership for the Company Officer (1949)


3-36. Discipline in the little things — saluting, police call and physical training– leads to discipline in the big things: advancing under fire, refusing an illegalorder and moving a wounded soldier to safety. That is why you must insist ontraining to standard. It starts with self-discipline but grows with pride in theunit and confidence in the leader’s and other soldiers’ abilities. A disciplinedunit is made up of soldiers who trust each other and know they can accomplishany mission they are given. A disciplined unit is made up of soldiers who willnot let each other down nor even consider failure.

C Company 3-504th PIR at Renacer PrisonC Company, 3rd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry was given themission to seize Renacer Prison and secure the prisoners. The plancalled for a simultaneous air assault and amphibious landing at H-Hour. At 0100, 2 Helicopters with 11 paratroopers each landed in thecramped prison yard. The troopers off-loaded and began to searchand secure the two major buildings within the fenced enclosure.SGT Schleben of C Company and his team moved into the darkheadquarters building and were met with a cloud of CS gas. Theydonned protective masks and reentered to press the attack. SGTSchleben spotted a blood trail and followed it outside where he wasmet by two Panamanian Defense Force (PDF) soldiers. As theyswung their weapons towards him, Schleben fired first and killed both.At the same time, SGT Wilson and his squad were clearing the finalbuildings. Hearing a woman cry, "Don't shoot!" the squad held fire anddiscovered a PDF lieutenant, his wife and child inside. None wereinjured. At 0600 the prison was secured with all prisoners accountedfor and unharmed. Five PDF were killed and 22 captured while onlyfour US soldiers were wounded.

3-37. You and your soldiers will receive varied missions in variedenvironments and you will have to adapt to the environment while trainingyour soldiers to perform many different tasks. Infantry could be supportingrelief operations after a natural disaster or a Quartermaster unit could bedefending its perimeter against a terrorist attack. But because of the speed thatinformation travels now and in the future, you and your soldiers can have an


FM 7-22.7


impact far beyond your actual area of operations. Remember this – success orfailure of an operation could be determined by one sentry, patrol leader, truckdriver, or gunner. And that soldier could be one of yours.

“Discipline is based on pride in the profession of arms, on meticulousattention to details and on mutual respect and confidence. Discipline must bea habit so ingrained that it is stronger than the excitement of battle or thefear of death.”

GEN George S. Patton, Jr.

3-38. Discipline results in accomplishing all tasks well, even the routine,simple ones.

The DeploymentAn infantry battalion had convoyed to an assembly area in preparationto be airlifted. The Air Force crew had difficulty getting the S-1section's vehicles — two HMMWVs with a water buffalo between them— loaded and properly secured on the C-130. When the crewsfinished loading and securing the vehicles and cargo, they let thepassengers board."There were 10 of us and there wasn’t much room," says the NCOIC."I warned my guys, 'don’t sit around these vehicles; I don't trust them.'I had a clerk move from between the water buffalo and the rearHMMWV. As the aircraft started to taxi, I woke another soldier whowas lying in the rear of the forward HMMWV with his legs hanging outthe rear of the truck and had him move his legs inside the vehicle."Just as the C-130 lifted off the ground, the water buffalo broke loose,rolled back and slammed into the rear HMMWV, breaking its chainsand causing both to slam into the rear ramp of the aircraft. The aircrewquickly alerted the flight crew. The pilot immediately set the aircraftback down and braked hard. Both loose vehicles rolled forward,slamming into the truck in the front of the cargo bay."There was no serious damage to the vehicles," said the NCOIC, "butI was glad that our soldiers had not been between the trucks ortrailers."

INTENDED AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES3-39. The actions you take as a leader will most likely have unintended as wellas intended consequences. Think through what you expect to happen as aresult of a decision. Some decisions set off a chain of events; as far aspossible, anticipate the effects of your decisions. Even small unit leaders’actions may have effects well beyond what they expect.

3-40. Intended consequences are those results of a leader’s decisions andactions the leader anticipated. For example, a convoy has come to a bridge and




the convoy commander, concerned about the weight capacity of the bridge,orders his convoy across one vehicle at a time. The intended consequence isfor all vehicles to cross safely without damage to the bridge.

3-41. Unintended consequences are unanticipated results of a leader’sdecisions and actions. For example, if a convoy is lined up in front of thebridge waiting for each vehicle to cross, an intended consequence (becauseyou could foresee it) is that the civilian traffic on the road gets backed up. Anunintended (and unforeseen) consequence is that some civilian drivers beginpassing the convoy in an unsafe manner.

3-42. All leaders’ decisions and actions result in consequences, both intendedand unintended. So as a leader you must think through decisions and then doyour duty. Try to foresee as far as possible what will result from actions anddecisions you take. The leader of a small unit can and often does have aneffect on much bigger events.

“In today's operational environment, tactical actions by lieutenants,sergeants, corporals and their commanders can have strategic consequenceswith lasting impact on national policy.”

LTG William M. Steele

PUTTING IT TOGETHER3-43. The Army leadership framework (Figure 3-1, page 72) is the Army’scommon basis for thinking about leadership. There is a lot to think about, butthe framework gives you the big picture and helps put your job, your peopleand your organization in perspective. The values, attributes, skills and actionsthat support BE, KNOW and DO each contain components and all are


FM 7-22.7


interrelated; none stands alone. For more information on how it fits togetherand the pieces that comprise the Framework see FM 6-22 (22-100), chapters 1-5. Its pieces work in combination to produce something more than the sum ofthe parts. BE the leader of character: live Army values and demonstrate leaderattributes. Study and practice so that you have the skills to KNOW your job.Then act, DO what’s right to train and care for your soldiers whileaccomplishing the mission.

“One of the things that makes our Army great is that we train and plan for allof our soldiers to be leaders. When the time comes, whether at peace or atwar, the American soldier has and will rise to the occasion. Over the yearswe have seen many changes in our Army — vehicles, weapon systems,uniforms and organizations. However, one thing has not changed- theresponsibility entrusted to US Army noncommissioned officers to lead, train,take care of and serve as role models for our soldiers. The greatest privilegeis the honor of leading America's finest men and women both in war andpeace.”

SMA Julius W. Gates

3-44. Leadership in combat is your primary and most important challenge. Itrequires you to develop in yourself and your soldiers the ability and the will towin — mental toughness. Check your soldiers’ mental toughness. An exampleof a gut check of mental toughness is taking the formation past the barracks atthe end of a four mile run. Army values contribute to a core of motivation andwill. Without such motivation and will, your soldiers may die unnecessarily.You are leading a part of the force that will fight and win the Nation’s warsand serves the common defense of the United States. In the years ahead, youwill be called upon for a variety of missions under extreme conditions. Insome cases you’ll be doing things you’ve never done before. But you can andwill succeed.


As a noncommissioned officer, you have been chosen to be aleader; be a good one. Good leadership throughout the Army is

the glue that holds units together. Training, practice andexperience build good leaders. Be proud you are a leader; strive

to be one of the best!



Chapter 4


Noncommissioned officers train soldiers to perform individualsoldier tasks to established standards. NCOs also train the smallunits of the Army – squads, sections, crews, fire teams – to fight

together as teams using their equipment effectively.

Training sharpens the mind, builds the spirit and strengthensthe team

NCOs Lay the Foundation in Training ....................................... 4-3Battle Focus........................................................................... 4-3Mission Essential Task List.................................................... 4-4Selection of Platoon and Squad Collective Tasks.................. 4-5Selection of Leader and Soldier Tasks................................... 4-5

Leader’s Role in Training .......................................................... 4-6Planning ................................................................................ 4-7Preparation ............................................................................ 4-9Execution ............................................................................. 4-10Standards............................................................................. 4-12

Other Leader Concerns in Training ......................................... 4-12Realism ................................................................................ 4-12Safety................................................................................... 4-13



FM 7-22.7


Sergeant’s Time Training .....................................................4-13Opportunity Training ............................................................4-14Drills .....................................................................................4-14

Assessment .............................................................................4-16Assessment Tools................................................................4-16Training Meetings .................................................................4-17

For more information on training and the NCO’s role in it see FM 7-0(25-100), Training the Force and FM 7-1 (25-101), Battle FocusedTraining .




NCOS LAY THE FOUNDATION IN TRAINING4-1. Army training tradition and common sense have made thenoncommissioned officer responsible for individual, crew and team training.The first line supervisor teaches individual tasks to soldiers in their squads,crews, or equivalent small units. The first line supervisor and his senior NCOsemphasize performance-oriented practice to ensure soldiers achieve soldier'smanual standards. The first line supervisor conducts cross training to spreadcritical wartime skills within his unit. The CSMs, first sergeants and othersenior NCOs coach junior NCOs to master a wide range of individual tasks.

“The first line supervisor builds the team at the operational level. Thesuccess/failure of the team depends on how well trained this team is, how itperforms as a team and what it learns from training as a team. The JuniorNCO leads this effort and provides the leadership for building andstrengthening the team.”

CSM A. Frank Lever, III

4-2. A good leader develops a genuine concern for the well-being of theirsoldiers. In the Army, this simply means that leaders must know andunderstand their soldiers well enough to train them to a high level ofproficiency as individuals and team and to have confidence in their ability toperform well under the difficult and demanding conditions of battle. The bestway to take care of your soldiers is to train them well. Training is the NCO’sprinciple duty and responsibility: no one has more to do with training soldiersthan the noncommissioned officer. The Army can provide ranges, ammunition,soldier’s manuals, training aids and devices, but none of these can do thetraining - they are tools for NCOs to train their soldiers. Good training bondstactics, weapons, equipment and units to accomplish the mission.

4-3. Commanders allot training time for NCOs to conduct individual trainingand require that individual tasks are included in all collective MissionEssential Task List (METL) training. Commanders also allot sufficient time soNCOs can retrain soldiers who need it to meet the standard. NCOs areresponsible for conducting individual training to standard and must be able toexplain how individual task training relates to collective mission essentialtasks. NCO leader training occurs in NCO Development Programs (NCODP),collective training, developmental counseling and self-development.


4-4. Battle focus is a concept used to determine training requirements fromwartime missions. Units cannot achieve and sustain proficiency on all possiblesoldier, leader and collective tasks. Commanders with NCO assistanceselectively identify and train those tasks that accomplish the unit's criticalwartime mission. The METL is the focal point for planning, execution and


FM 7-22.7


assessment of training. This is critical throughout the entire training processand aids in allocating resources for training. It also enables tailoring of unitleader development training for those competencies required to execute Armywarfighting doctrine.

“When you’re in the Army, you can be in the infantry at any given moment.”

SGT Michael Davis

4-5. NCOs link the collective mission essential tasks and the leader and soldiertasks that support them. The CSM and NCO leaders select specific soldiertasks that support each collective task of the METL. NCOs are primarilyresponsible for training soldier tasks. Leaders at every level remainresponsible for training to established standards during soldier, leader and unittraining.


4-6. After the commander designates the collective mission essential tasksrequired to accomplish the unit’s wartime mission, the CSM and senior NCOsdevelop a supporting individual task list for each mission essential task. Oftencalled the “METL Crosswalk,” soldier training publications and missiontraining plans are major source documents for selecting appropriate individualtasks.




INTEGRATION OF SOLDIER, LEADER ANDCOLLECTIVE TRAINING4-7. The Company/Battery/Troop is the lowest level to have a METL. Thecommander gives to his chain of command the mission and METL foraccomplishing the company's wartime mission.


4-8. From the company mission and METL, the platoon leader and platoonsergeant determine their collective tasks. They –

• Use the mission-to-collective task matrix found in the appropriate platoonArmy Training Evaluation Program Mission Training Plan (ARTEP MTP) todetermine platoon collective tasks that support each company missionessential task.

• Determine which collective tasks support more than one company missionessential task to identify high payoff tasks. For example, most infantrycompany mission essential tasks require the infantry platoon collective task,“Move Tactically.”

• Present selected platoon collective tasks to the company commander toobtain guidance and approval. The commander uses METT-T analysis,resource availability and unit status analysis to select the most importantplatoon tasks.

4-9. The platoon leader and platoon sergeant assist the squad leaders indetermining the squad collective tasks to accomplish the platoon collectivetasks. They used the same process as above to select these tasks. The companycommander approves the squad collective tasks.


4-10. Unit leaders select soldier tasks to support squad and platoon collectivetasks using the collective-to-soldier task matrix found in the appropriateARTEP MTPs. They do this for each skill level in the unit.

4-11. The CSM and key NCOs review and refine the supporting soldier tasksfor each skill level in every MOS within the unit, especially low-density MOStasks. Leader books are a valuable tool to track task proficiency. Informationon the leader book is in Appendix C.

4-12. You can find leader tasks in the appropriate Soldier Training Publication(STP), MTP, or soldier’s manual. Company commanders use the appropriateplatoon ARTEP MTP to identify platoon leader tasks. The 1SG and key NCOsuse appropriate STPs to identify NCO leader tasks. Leaders must be proficienton these and other specified leader tasks before conducting collective training.See Figure 4-1.


FM 7-22.7


Soldier to Task Selection Review ApproveBe Trained

1SG CSM Co. Cdr Bn CdrPSG 1SG Plt Ldr/Co. Cdr Bn CdrSqd Ldr PSG Plt Ldr/1SG Co. CdrTm Ldr Sqd Ldr PSG/Plt Ldr Co. CdrSoldier Tm Ldr Sqd Ldr/PSG Plt Ldr

Figure 4-1. Task Approval Matrix

4-13. Combat Support and Combat Service Support leaders have similardocuments available. When no published leader tasks exist, develop themusing doctrinal manuals, other proponent school publications and commontask manuals. The skill level 3 tasks in the food service STP provide CSSleader tasks for a food service NCO, for example –

• Establish layout of field feeding areas.• Supervise operation and maintenance of the Mobile Kitchen Trailer (MKT).• Supervise personnel in cleaning and maintenance of field feeding equipment.• Request and turn-in subsistence.

4-14. All leaders and soldiers must perform common tasks and essentialMilitary Occupational Specialty (MOS) - specific tasks. There are 85 commontasks and 70 MOS-specific tasks in ARTEP 7-8-MTP, Mission Training Planfor the Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad. This list of 155 tasks would be toolarge to sustain because of limited training time and other resource constraints.Leaders use battle focus to refine the list to mission related tasks that areessential to the soldier's duty position and analyze it to eliminate duplication.

Corporal Sandy Jones in World War I“Corporal Sandy E. Jones [a soldier in one of the black units in WWI],after all his officers had been knocked out and most of his sergeants,put a company together and led it for two days against a hill position.Corporal Jones was the Iron Commander’s [GEN John J. Pershing]idea of a fighter...a fighter...a fighter. Pershing pinned theDistinguished Service Cross on his left breast.”

LEADER’S ROLE IN TRAINING4-15. In addition to the commander's responsibilities, all leaders must requiretheir soldiers to understand and perform their roles in training. Thecommander assigns primary responsibility to officers for collective trainingand to noncommissioned officers for soldier training. NCOs also have




responsibility to train squads, sections, teams and crews. The commandermelds leader and soldier training requirements into collective training eventsso that all gain training value from each event. Additionally, all leaders —

• Exchange information. Guidance on missions and priorities flows down;soldier, leader and collective training needs flow up. Training meetings,briefings and AARs are the primary forums for exchanging traininginformation.

• Demand soldiers achieve training standards.§ Set aside time to training tasks not performed to standard.§ Plan to train a realistic number of tasks during a training event. It is

better to train to standard on a few tasks than fail to achieve the standardon many. Soldiers will remember the enforced standard.

• Assess the results of training in the AAR. The leader at every level analyzesthe unit and soldiers’ performance and makes judgment on their strengths andweaknesses. This may lead to additional training or recommendations forfuture training events.

4-16. About half of the Army force structure is in the Reserve Component(RC) — the Army National Guard (ARNG) and US Army Reserve (USAR).RC units train to the same standard on each task as Active units. However,they train fewer tasks because of reduced training time, geographicaldispersion, availability of equipment for training and fewer training areas.Nonetheless, RC units have only two days each month (unit trainingassemblies) and two weeks of Annual Training (AT) each year in which toconduct training. This requires efficient use of time and resources. NCOs inthe RC are among the most dedicated and innovative leaders in the Army andmake maximum use of limited resources.

“A lot of time, support personnel say, ‘we do our wartime mission every day.’That’s not so. You’ve got to look at the conditions in which you’reperforming those missions.”

CSM Bobby Butler


4-17. Short-range planning is based on the long-range unit assessment and ona detailed training assessment of the unit's current METL proficiency. Itfocuses on training deficiencies that impact on the unit's ability to perform itswartime mission. A training assessment is—

• Required for each METL task, platoon and squad collective task, soldier taskand, at battalion and higher headquarters, each battle task.

• A snapshot of the unit's current soldier, leader and collective task proficiency.• A comparison of task proficiency with Army standards.


FM 7-22.7


4-18. Training meetings are non-negotiable at battalion and company level.Battalions and companies must hold them. Training meetings provideguidance for forming training schedules. In the Active Component (AC) theprimary focus of training meetings at battalion level is training managementissues for the next six weeks while RC units are looking one or two yearsahead. Coordination meetings should be held to resolve resource issues priorto the battalion training meeting. At company level, training meetings focus onthe specifics of training to be conducted.

4-19. Meetings are also held at platoon and squad level. Essential soldier,leader and collective training needs must be identified and sent up the chain ofcommand. Likewise, information passed out at the company training meetingmust reach every soldier through the platoon chain of command. The trainingschedule provides this detailed information. Training schedules providepredictability for soldiers and create confidence in the chain of command.Near-term planning conducted at the training meeting results in detailedtraining schedules. The training schedule is the unit's primary managementtool to ensure training is conducted on time and by qualified trainers with thenecessary resources.

The Training ScheduleOnce the battalion commander approves and the companycommander signs the training schedule, it is locked in and

constitutes an official order

4-20. Only the approving authority can change the training schedule; forexample, for the company, it is normally the battalion commander. Higherheadquarters must then protect units from unprogrammed events, activities andother distracters. Leaders must ensure daily training is conducted to standardand adheres to the training schedule. CSMs and 1SGs are key to making thishappen. Soldiers have a legal responsibility to attend scheduled training.

4-21. Training cannot happen if essential equipment and systems (such astracks, weapons, wheeled vehicles, or radios) are Nonmission Capable (NMC).Everyone (leaders, maintenance personnel and operators) must be trained andinvolved to improve and sustain the unit's maintenance posture. In war,soldiers and crews perform Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services(PMCS) under combat conditions often without the normal direction andsupervision of superiors. This requires maintenance personnel and equipmentor vehicle operators who are proficient in their maintenance duties. Leaderstrain soldiers to meet Army maintenance standards. NCOs instill anunderstanding of and the know-how to perform day-to-day maintenanceoperations.





4-22. Formal planning for training culminates with the publication of thetraining schedule. Informal planning, detailed coordination and pre-executionchecks continue until the training is performed. Well prepared trainers,soldiers and support personnel are ready to participate and their facilities,equipment and materials are ready to use.

4-23. Proper preparation gives trainers confidence in their ability to train. Theymust rehearse their preparations and review the tasks and subtasks to becovered during their training. To prepare trainers to conduct performance-oriented training, commanders and leaders provide preparation time so that thetrainer can—

• Review references, such as ARTEP 71-2-MTP, soldier's manuals, FMs andTMs to understand tasks, conditions and standards.

• Prepare a Task & Evaluation Outline.• Gather and prepare training support items, equipment and supplies such as

Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES), other TrainingAids, Devices, Simulator and Simulations (TADSS) and Class III and IX.

• Conduct a reconnaissance of training site.• Prepare the soldiers for training.

4-24. Commanders and leaders also conduct rehearsals to—

• Identify weak points in the training plan.• Teach effective training techniques and coach as needed.• Ensure all safety and environmental considerations are met.• Determine how the trainer will evaluate the soldiers' or unit's performance at

the end of training for compliance with the training objective.• Assess subordinate trainer competencies and provide developmental feedback

to them throughout the training preparation and execution process.• Give them confidence in their ability to train.

“Good work requires much thought and concentrated thinking is the secret ofgenius.”

SSG Ray H. Duncan

4-25. Leaders use MTPs, soldier's manuals, drill books and similarpublications to develop the Training and Evaluation Outline (T&EO).Whenever possible, they use the published T&EO.

4-26. To conduct effective, meaningful training for soldiers, leaders and units,thorough preparation is essential. Leaders themselves must be able to performthe task before trying to teach others. Proper preparation gives them


FM 7-22.7


confidence in their ability to train. After proper planning and preparation arecomplete, soldiers, leaders and units are ready to execute training to standard.

The 555th Parachute Infantry – ‘Triple Nickles’The Triple Nickles (a misspelling at the time that just stuck) – the555th Parachute Infantry Battalion — was formed in November 1944.Almost all of the officers, NCOs and enlisted men served in the sameunit for years and through hard training they developed camaraderieand respect for each other. Everyone was trained thoroughly from thebasics of a soldier’s individual survival needs to team tactics forcombat. The battalion conducted simulated combat jumps and tacticalexercises and in each rotated leader roles to develop leadership skillsat the lowest level. During these exercises each soldier had theopportunity to lead and command. In early 1945 the 555th engaged inadvanced unit combat training and grew to over four hundred men.Some of the new arrivals were combat veterans from units in Europeand the Pacific. These veterans, on their way to the unit, had alreadyreceived not only jump training, but also special advanced training atFort Benning as riggers, demolition men, jumpmasters or pathfinders.After an intensive two-month training program, the Triple Nickles wereready to take on anybody. But by April 1945 the German armies hadcollapsed and Americans and Russians met on the Elbe River.The close of the war in Europe in May 1945 brought the Triple Nicklesa change of mission. To combat fires in the western US, some ofwhich were started by enemy ‘balloon bombs,’ they received newparachute training that included three jumps; two in clearings, one inheavy forest. In mid July, the battalion had qualified as SmokeJumpers — the Army’s only airborne firefighters. Soon their operationswould range over seven western states. All missions were risky andtough. Jumping into trees was dangerous and the DZ’s were oftenrough. At night they maintained fire and snake and wild animalwatches. The 555th participated in thirty-six fire missions — individualjumps totaled over twelve hundred. By August 1945 the war withJapan was over, the 555th returned to Fort Bragg and became anintegral part of the 82nd Airborne.

4-27. Most units in the Army train for combat and develop great skill in theirgiven roles. But when conditions and the needs of the Nation change, unitsadapt and prepare for new roles – and succeed because of hard training anddiscipline.


4-28. Training is the peacetime mission of the Army. The execution of trainingto standard is the payoff for all other phases of training management. Leadersupervision and participation at all levels are essential to the successfulexecution of training. Battle focused leaders ensure that planned training isstarted on time and executed vigorously to standard. Leaders assess soldier,




leader and unit performance throughout the execution phase. They providefeedback to allow soldiers to learn from their strengths and weaknesses and tosubsequently adjust their own training programs.

“Survival in combat is not solely a matter of luck. Doing things the right wayis more important than luck in coming through a battle alive. And trainingteaches you to do things the right way.... It’s training that defeats the enemyand saves lives.”

SMA William O. Wooldridge

NCOs Make it Happen

4-29. Senior NCOs are responsible for getting soldiers, subordinate leadersand units to the training sites. They ensure that soldiers are at the rightlocation, in the right uniform, with the right equipment, at the right time.Further, senior NCOs ensure—

• Detailed inspections and checks are performed prior to all training.• Prerequisite training is completed so that soldiers' time is not wasted.• Leaders are trained and prepared to train their squads, sections, teams, or

crews. They train the trainers.• Preliminary training for squad, section, team and crew has the right focus and

is executed to Army standard.• Training includes a realistic number of tasks.• Soldiers train to standard and meet the training objectives. Special emphasis

is on low-density MOSs.• The schedule allows adequate time to repeat tasks not performed to standard

the first time.• Soldiers are properly motivated and well led.• Soldiers are present and accounted for, especially during STT.

4-30. NCOs are the primary trainers. They are responsible to—

• Account for their soldiers.• Know their units' and soldiers' training needs and plan appropriate time to

train tasks to standard.• Conduct a rehearsal.• Identify and conduct appropriate prerequisite training.• Ensure training is conducted to standard.• Retrain soldiers when standards are not met.• Be properly prepared to conduct opportunity training whenever time is


"Only perfect practice makes perfect."

SFC Lydia Mead


FM 7-22.7


4-31. Presentation of training provides soldiers with the specific trainingobjectives (tasks, conditions and standards) to be trained and the evaluationmethods to be used. The exact type and amount of information presented priorto performing the task depends on the task and the state of training of thesoldiers being trained.

“[When an instructor] knows his topic thoroughly, he is eager to pour itout.”

MSG Jose R. Carmona


4-32. Leaders emphasize accomplishing training to standard by identifying theArmy standard and, more importantly, by demanding that soldiers meet thosestandards. They ensure soldiers understand when they have not performedtraining to standard. Leaders must allow sufficient time to retrain the task untilit can be performed correctly.

“An NCO must know what right looks like and must prepare. As NCOs wenever stop learning and must seek guidance from manuals and our leaders toensure we know the standard. NCOs must be at the training from preparationto execution through retraining.”

CSM Mary E. Sutherland


4-33. Units should train in peacetime as they will fight during war. Peacetimetraining must replicate battlefield conditions as closely as resources permit. Alltraining is based on this principle. Leaders must ensure that soldiers are trainedto cope with complex, stressful and lethal situations they will encounter incombat. Achieve this by—

• Enforcing high standards.• Training soldiers, leaders and units in a near wartime environment, not in the

classroom.• Ensuring all training is tactically oriented.• Ensuring Opposing Forces (OPFOR) use appropriate threat or capabilities

based doctrine, tactics and equipment.• Integrating realistic conditions by increasing the difficulty of tasks, such as—§ Simulate the loss of key leaders.§ Use of smoke on the battlefield.§ Require casualty evacuation.§ Simulate nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) situations.§ Replicate battlefield debris.




§ Train in conditions of limited visibility or at night.§ Interrupt or jam communications.

4-34. As soldier performance levels increase, conditions under which tasks areperformed become more demanding while standards remain constant. Soldiersand leaders must execute the planned training, assess performance and retrainuntil Army standards are met under the most difficult wartime conditions. Thesame standards must be enforced on a task whether it is performedindividually or as part of a larger operation. Soldier and leader training mustoccur continually and be fully integrated into collective training.

Carefully planned, purposeful and effective training...demonstratesconcretely the leader's intense concern that the men and the unit receiveevery possible measure to prepare them to accomplish their mission.

DA Pam 22-1, Leadership (1948)


4-35. Leaders must ensure realistic training is safe; safety awareness protectscombat power. Historically, more casualties occur in combat due to accidentsthan from enemy action. Ensuring that realistic training is safe instills theawareness that will save lives in combat. Conducting realistic training ischallenging business. The goal of the chain of command is not training firstnor safety first, but training safely. The commander is the safety officer. He isultimately responsible for unit safety; however, every soldier is responsible forsafe training. This includes leaders throughout the chain of command andNCO support channel, not just range safety officers and NCOs, ObserverControllers (OCs) and installation safety officers. NCOs should conduct a riskassessment for every mission they prepare for.


4-36. Some training time during the week should be devoted to the small-unitleader (such as a squad leader or a vehicle commander) to train his unit (seeAppendix A, Sergeant’s Time Training). This enhances readiness andcohesion; it also allows the junior NCO to learn and exercise the Army'straining management system at the lowest level. The key is to train the trainerso that he can train his soldiers. This requires the NCO to identify essentialsoldier and small-unit and team tasks (drills) that support unit METL and thenthe NCO must—

• Assess strengths and weaknesses.• Formulate a plan to correct deficiencies and sustain strengths.• Execute the training to standard.


FM 7-22.7



4-37. Opportunity training is the conduct of preselected, prepared instructionon critical tasks that require little explanation. Sometimes called “hip-pocket”training, it is conducted when proficiency has been reached on the scheduledprimary training task and time is available. Unscheduled breaks in exercises orassembly area operations, or while waiting for transportation, provide time foropportunity training. Creative, aggressive leaders use this time to sustain theskills of their soldiers and units. For example, an Stinger team crew leadermay conduct opportunity training on aircraft identification while waiting tohave his crew's MILES re-keyed during a Field Training Exercise (FTX).Good leader books are necessary to select tasks for quality opportunitytraining.


4-38. Drills provide small units standard procedures for building strong,aggressive units. A unit's ability to accomplish its mission depends on soldiers,leaders and units executing key actions quickly. All soldiers and their leadersmust understand their immediate reaction to enemy contact. They must alsounderstand squad or platoon follow-up actions to maintain momentum andoffensive spirit on the battlefield. Drills are limited to situations requiringinstantaneous response; therefore, soldiers must execute drills instinctively.This results from continual practice.

4-39. Drills provide standardized actions that link soldier and collective tasksat platoon level and below. At company and above, integration of systems andsynchronization demand an analysis of METT-T. Standard Tactics,




Techniques and Procedures (TTP) help to speed the decision and action cycleof units above platoon level, but they are not drills. There are two types ofdrills which apply to all type units—battle drills and crew drills.

SSG Michael Duda in Desert StormAt 1400 on 26 February 1991, a US armor task force consolidated it'sposition and oriented north on a small desert hill to allow the task forceon it's right to catch up. Visibility was less than 1500 meters due tofog, dust and smoke. Spot reports from higher indicated an enemycolumn of 20 tanks was crossing the brigade front from the east. Thetrailing task force in the right reported being stationary and over 2kilometers behind the forward battalion on the left. Spot reports furtherconfirmed the trailing unit's Scouts were in zone and no further norththat the forward battalion's positions (vicinity the 39 grid line).Two T-55s then appeared along a road 2500 meters to the forwardunit's front and adjacent to it's right boundary. Upon confirmation,these two tanks were destroyed, one by the task force commander'stank from his right flank vantage point.A short time later, brigade reemphasized the threat of an enemy tankcolumn from the east and cautioned the commander to be prepared.The trailing battalion reconfirmed it's location south of the 37 grid line,with Scouts vicinity the 39 grid line. During this time the forwardbattalion continued to have contact and enemy engagements amongit's left flank company teams. Then a tank platoon from the right flankof the forward battalion reported two more vehicles vicinity the brightlyburning T-55s and moving in a direction consistent with the brigadespot report. The task force commander gave a fire command to thatcompany and initiated a 2700 meter engagement with his own tank.Within moments, his gunner, SSG Michael Duda, exclaimed over theintercom: "Sir, there is something wrong here!" His commanderimmediately transmitted a cease fire.Fortunately no one engaged the vehicles. SSG Duda had recognizedthe "hot" roadwheel thermal signature characteristic of the BradleyFighting Vehicle (BFV). Quick investigation confirmed this was amisoriented Scout section from the adjacent battalion and almost 4000meters forward of the reported positions.

4-40. A battle drill is a collective action that platoon and smaller units rapidlyexecute without applying a deliberate decision making process.

• Battle drills require minimal leader orders to accomplish and are standardthroughout the Army.

• They continue sequential actions that are vital to success in combat or criticalto preserving life.

• They are trained responses to enemy actions or leader’s orders.• Battle drills represent mental steps followed for offensive and defensive

actions in training and combat.


FM 7-22.7


4-41. A crew drill is a collective action that the crew of a weapon or systemmust perform to employ the weapon or equipment. This action is a trainedresponse to a given stimulus, such as a leader order or the status of the weaponor equipment. Like a battle drill, a crew drill requires minimal leader orders toaccomplish and is standard throughout the Army.

“No football coach sends his team out to scrimmage on the first day ofpractice. He would end up with chaos and a lot of injuries. Instead, he drillsthe players on individual skills like blocking, tackling and passing. Then heworks on collective tasks such as setting up the pocket and pass-releasetiming. When the players are trained to proficiency in these skills, the coachhas them work on plays.”

SSG Rico Johnston

ASSESSMENT4-42. Leaders use evaluations and other feedback to assess soldier, leader andunit proficiency. The analysis of the information provided through evaluationsis key to the commander’s assessment.

4-43. The unit assessment is made by the commander. It is based on hisfirsthand observations and input from all leaders (officer and NCO) and it isthe base upon which a training strategy is developed. The unit assessment is—

• Developed using evaluations, reports, leader books, or records.• A continuous process though formal assessment is usually conducted at the

start of planning phases and after major training events.• Used to set or update unit goals and objectives.• Influenced by future events; for example, personnel turnover, new equipment

fielding, or force structure changes.

4-44. The CSM, 1SGs, platoon sergeants, squad leaders and other key NCOsprovide input on squad, section, team and soldier proficiency on essentialsoldier tasks for the commander's assessment. Leaders also provide input tothe commander's assessment of leader proficiency and provide planningrecommendations on integrating selected essential leader and soldier tasks intocollective mission essential tasks.


4-45. NCOs may use a leader book and battle roster to assess section, squad,crew and soldier tasks. Battle rosters provide a way to record key systemscrew data. Battle rosters—

• May be maintained formally or informally.• Are maintained at battalion level and below.




• Track key weapon and support systems, such as tanks, attack helicopters,howitzers, radars, trucks and tube launched, optically tracked, wire-guided(TOW) missiles.

• Track crew data such as stability, manning or qualification status.• Designate qualified back-up crewmembers.• Identify soldiers to enable them to train as a designated crew.

4-46. The After-Action Review (AAR) is a structured review process thatallows training participants to discover for themselves what happened, why ithappened and how it can be done better. AARs—

• Focus on the training objectives — Was the mission accomplished?• Emphasize meeting Army standards (not who won or lost).• Encourage soldiers to discover important lessons from the training event.• Allow a large number of soldiers and leaders (including OPFOR) to

participate so those lessons learned can be shared.

4-47. The AAR has four parts:

• Review what was supposed to happen (training plan).• Establish what happened (to include OPFOR point of view).• Determine what was right or wrong with what happened.• Determine how the task should be done differently next time.

AARs are one of the best learning tools we have.... AARs must be a two-waycommunication between the NCO and the soldiers. They are not lectures.

Center for Army Lessons Learned


4-48. Battalions and companies must conduct training meetings. The focus atbattalion and company is in scheduling training based on commanders’assessments. But it is helpful for platoons to conduct training meetings inpreparation for company training meetings.

4-49. At the platoon training meeting the focus should be in developing thoseassessments of individual and crew training levels and communicating these tothe higher commander. The platoon meetings also focus on the actualpreparation, rehearsal and execution of upcoming training. In any event, allNCOs of the platoon should be there to advise the platoon sergeant andplatoon leader of their soldiers’ training status and recommend additionaltraining.

4-50. The platoon sergeant ensures that all NCOs are prepared for the meeting.This means everyone being on time and properly equipped. At a minimum,


FM 7-22.7


NCOs need to bring their leader book, paper and pencil/pen, training schedulesand a calendar to the meeting.

4-51. Platoons follow an established agenda when executing training meetings.This allows for a quick and efficient meeting as in issuing an Operation Order(OPORD) for a tactical operation. Keeping in mind the three objectives ofplatoon meetings, a sample agenda is:

• Squad or section training assessments.• Platoon leader's assessment.• Preparation for training.• Future training.• Command guidance.

4-52. After the company and battalion have had training meetings at theirrespective levels, important information comes back through the chain ofcommand. A technique to getting this information to all the soldiers is to meetwith key leaders and put out information affecting the platoon.

4-53. The NCO’s role in training is not only as the trainer of individualsoldiers and small units – though clearly that is the primary role. NCOs knowthe level of training of their soldiers and small units. NCOs must convey thisinformation through the chain of command so training events improve orsustain individual and collective training levels. It is vitally important forNCOs to be involved in assessment and planning of training, as well aspreparation and execution.

Leading and training American soldiers – thebest job in the world!



Chapter 5

Counseling and Mentorship

We have the best doctrine, the best training and the bestequipment in the world – but our people are the Army’s greatest


Leader’s Responsibility............................................................. 5-3Effective Army Counseling Program ......................................... 5-5

The Counseling Process ........................................................ 5-6Assess the Plan of Action...................................................... 5-7

Types of Developmental Counseling ........................................ 5-7Event-Oriented Counseling .................................................... 5-7Counseling for Specific Instances......................................... 5-7Performance and Professional Growth Counseling ............. 5-10

The Counseling Session ......................................................... 5-13Mentorship .............................................................................. 5-16

Developmental Relationship ................................................ 5-16Sustain Mentorship .............................................................. 5-17NCO Mentorship of Officers................................................. 5-18Mentorship Builds the Future .............................................. 5-19



FM 7-22.7


For more information on Counseling and Mentorship see FM 6-22 (22-100) Army Leadership, Appendix C, Counseling; The Army LeadershipHomepage,; and the Army CounselingHomepage,

For more information on the NCO Evaluation System, see AR 623-205,“Noncommissioned Officer Evaluation Reporting System,” 15 May 2002.

For more information on mentorship, see DA PAM 600-XX, “ArmyMentorship,” TBP.


Counseling and Mentorship


5-1. At the time of the American Revolution, European armies were heldtogether by the most severe discipline. Enlistments in Europe and Englandwere often as long as twenty-five years, pay was very low and punishmentswere cruel by today’s standards. To reduce desertion and motivate troops forbattle, the threat of flogging, even death, was held over soldier’s heads.Frederick the Great of Prussia set the tone of the period with his view thatsoldiers should be more afraid of their NCOs then the enemy. From thefounding of the Continental Army , the European tradition of harsh disciplinewas rejected. Friedrich von Steuben, the Army’s first trainer and himself aproduct of the old Prussian tradition, quickly came to understand that it wouldtake more than threats to get American recruits to perform well on thebattlefield. General George Washington agreed and together, both leadersrecognized that the American soldier was an individual citizen, not aninterchangeable commodity. Citizen-soldiers would have to be led, inspiredand disciplined by reason, creating the need to counsel.

5-2. To best understand the value of counseling it is best to first understand itsdefinition. Counseling is a type of communication that leaders use to empowersoldiers to achieve goals. It is much more than providing feedback ordirection. It is communication aimed at developing a soldier’s ability toachieve individual and unit goals. Soldiers want to be counseled and willrespond to counseling because they want to know what it takes to besuccessful in today’s Army. Regardless of your leadership position, yoursoldiers see you as successful simply because you have achieved the level theyare striving to accomplish. Leaders must provide each of their soldiers with thebest possible road map to success. Today’s leadership doctrine incorporatesthis definition in subordinate-centered communication, which leads to theachievement of individual and unit goals.

LEADER’S RESPONSIBILITY5-3. Today’s Army demands effective counseling. Due to the complexity ofequipment, diversity of personnel and organizational structure, we have uniquechallenges. To overcome these problems, a leader has talent, experience andthe desire to succeed. Leaders help soldiers solve their problems by guidingthem to a workable solution through effective counseling. Counseling is soimportant it should be on the training schedule to ensure sufficient time isavailable to do it.

5-4. The Army’s values of Loyalty, Duty and Selfless Service require us tocounsel. The Army’s values of Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage alsorequire us to give straightforward feedback and the Army’s value of Respectrequires us to find the best way to communicate that feedback.


FM 7-22.7


5-5. Leaders conduct counseling to develop soldiers to achieve personal,professional development and organizational goals, and to prepare them forincreased responsibilities. Leaders are responsible for developing theirsoldiers. Unit readiness and mission accomplishment depend on everymember’s ability to perform to established standards. Supervisors mustdevelop their subordinates through teaching, coaching and counseling. Leaderscoach soldiers the same way any sports coach improves their team: byidentifying weaknesses, setting goals, developing and implementing a plan ofaction and providing oversight and motivation throughout the process. To beeffective coaches, leaders must thoroughly understand the strengths,weaknesses and professional goals of their soldiers.

“In developmental counseling, it’s a matter of sitting the soldier down andtelling him not only how well he did over the last thirty days, but also oftelling the soldier how he or she can improve their performance and thenlooking deeper down the road.”

CSM Anthony Williams

5-6. Leaders counsel because it is their duty and the primary tool in developingfuture leaders. For their counseling to be effective they must be honest andhave the personal courage to give straightforward feedback. Through respectfor the individual, leaders find the best way to communicate that guidance.Senior NCOs should develop the counseling skills of their subordinate leaders.One way to do this is for the senior NCO to sit in on a counseling session,perhaps a reception and integration counseling, and then do an AAR with thejunior NCO.

• Purpose: Clearly define the purpose of the counseling.

• Flexibility: Fit the counseling style to the character of each soldier andto the relationship desired.

• Respect: View soldiers as unique, complex individuals, each with theirown sets of values, beliefs and attitudes.

• Communication: Establish open, two-way communication with soldiersusing spoken language, nonverbal actions, gestures and bodylanguage. Effective counselors listen more than they speak.

• Support: Encourage soldiers through actions while guiding themthrough their problems.

• Motivation: Get every soldier to actively participate in counseling andunderstand its value.

Figure 5-1. Characteristics of Effective Counseling

5-7. Some soldiers may perceive counseling as an adverse action. Effectiveleaders who counsel properly and regularly can change that perception.


Counseling and Mentorship


Leaders conduct counseling to help soldiers become better members of theteam, maintain or improve performance and prepare for the future. No easyanswers exist for exactly what to do in all leadership and counseling situations.However, to conduct effective counseling, leaders should develop a counselingstyle with the characteristics listed in Figure 5-1.

“You also must ensure the session is not done in a threatening manner.Nothing will destroy communications faster than if the soldier thinks therewill be negative consequences to that conversation.”

CSM Daniel E. Wright

EFFECTIVE ARMY COUNSELING PROGRAM5-8. Four elements are essential to the creation of an effective counselingprogram:

§ Education and Training : Institutional and in units, throughmentorship and self-development. The Army must first provide abase line of education to its soldiers to “show what right looks like.”The Noncommissioned Officer Education System (NCOES) has theprimary responsibility to educate the NCO Corps on counseling.However, NCOES cannot accomplish this alone. Unit NCODevelopment Programs can and must conduct training workshops toprovide that base of education of what right looks like to our juniorleaders.

§ Experience: Learn by doing coupled with guidance from more seniorleaders. After initial education and training, all leaders must put theirskills to use. NCOs must practice counseling while at the same timereceiving guidance and mentoring on how to improve counselingtechniques.

§ Continued support from both the Army and leaders : The Army’sCounseling Website (, FM 6-22 (22-100),Appendix B and C and leaders (through spot checks and randommonitoring of counseling sessions) provide the necessary support andcritiques that will improve a young leader’s counseling skills.

§ Enforcement: Once NCOs have the tools (both education andsupport) necessary for quality counseling, leaders must hold themaccountable to ensure acceptable counseling standards for bothfrequency and content. This is accomplished through some type ofcompliance program on unit inspections.


FM 7-22.7



5-9. Effective leaders use the counseling process. It consists of four stages:

• Identify the need for counseling.• Prepare for counseling.• Conduct counseling.• Follow-up.

“Listen to what soldiers have to say- they’ll tell you everything if you listenopenly. Criticize and they’ll clam up. Ask what isn’t working about programseven if company statistics indicate that they are running well. Soldiercomments often provide insight into ways to improve things to save time andmake things more meaningful.”

COL David Reaney

Leaders must demonstrate certainqualities to counsel effectively:

• Respect for soldiers.• Self and cultural awareness.• Credibility.• Empathy.

Leaders must possess certaincounseling skills:

• Active listening.• Responding.• Questioning.

Effective leaders avoid commoncounseling mistakes. Leaders shouldavoid the influence of:

• Personal bias.• Rash judgments.• Stereotyping.• The loss of emotional

control.• Inflexible methods of

counseling.• Improper follow-up.

The Counseling Process:1. Identify the need for counseling.2. Prepare for counseling:

• Select a suitable place.• Schedule the time.• Notify the counselee well

in advance.• Organize information.• Outline the components

of the counselingsession.

• Plan counseling strategy.• Establish the right

atmosphere.3. Conduct the counselingsession:

• Open the session.• Discuss the issue.• Develop a plan of action

(to include the leader’sresponsibilities).

• Record and Close thesession.

4. Follow-up.• Support Plan of Action

Implementation.• Assess Plan of Action.

Figure 5-2. Major Aspects of Counseling Process


Counseling and Mentorship



5-10. The purpose of counseling is to develop soldiers who are better able toachieve personal, professional and organizational goals. During theassessment, review the plan of action with the soldier to determine if thedesired results were achieved. The leader and soldier should schedule futurefollow-up counseling sessions. Figure 5-2 summarizes the major aspects of thecounseling process. Additional information on counseling is in Appendix C ofFM 6-22 (22-100) and on the Army Counseling Homepage(

“Nothing will ever replace one person looking another in the eyes and tellingthe soldier his strengths and weaknesses. [Counseling] charts a path tosuccess and diverts soldiers from heading down the wrong road.”

SGM Randolph S. Hollingsworth

TYPES OF DEVELOPMENTAL COUNSELING5-11. You can often categorize developmental counseling based on the topic ofthe session. The two major categories of counseling are event-oriented andperformance and professional growth.


5-12. Event-oriented counseling involves a specific event or situation. It mayprecede events, such as going to a promotion board or attending a school; or itmay follow events, such as a noteworthy duty performance, a problem withperformance or mission accomplishment, or a personal problem. Examples ofevent-oriented counseling include, but are not limited to these types:

• Specific instances of superior or substandard performance.• Reception and integration counseling.• Crisis counseling.• Referral counseling.• Promotion counseling.• Separation counseling.


5-13. Sometimes counseling is tied to specific instances of superior orsubstandard duty performance. For example, you tell your soldier whether ornot the performance met the standard and what the soldier did right or wrong.The key to successful counseling for specific performance is to conduct thecounseling session as close to the time of the event as possible.


FM 7-22.7


5-14. When counseling a soldier for specific performance take the followingactions:

• Tell the soldier the purpose of the counseling, what was expected andhow they failed to meet the standard.

• Address the specific unacceptable behavior or action, not the person’scharacter.

• Tell the soldier the effect of the performance on the rest of the unit.• Actively listen to the soldier’s response.• Remain unemotional.• Teach the soldier how to meet the standard.• Be prepared to do some personal counseling since the lack of

performance may be related to or the result of a personal problem.• Explain to the soldier what will be done to improve performance (plan

of action). Identify your responsibilities in implementing the plan ofaction.

• Continue to assess and follow-up on the soldier’s progress. Adjust theplan of action as necessary.

Reception and Integration Counseling

5-15. Leaders must counsel new team members when they report in. Receptionand integration counseling serves two purposes: First, it identifies and helpsfix any problems or concerns that new members have, especially any issuesresulting from the new duty assignment. Second, it lets them know the unitstandards and how they fit into the team. Reception and integration counselingstarts the team building process and lets the soldier know the leadership cares.Reception and integration counseling clarifies job titles and it sends themessage that the chain of command cares. Reception and integrationcounseling should begin immediately upon arrival so new team members canquickly become integrated into the organization. Figure 5-3 gives somepossible discussion points.


Counseling and Mentorship


• Unit standards.• Chain of command.• NCO support channel (who and how used).• On and off duty conduct.• Personnel/personal affairs/initial clothing issue.• Unit history, organization and mission.• Soldier programs within the unit, such as soldier of the

month/quarter/year and Audie Murphy and Sergeant Morales Board.• Off limits and danger areas.• Functions and locations of support activities.• On and off post recreational, educational, cultural and historical

opportunities.• Foreign nation or host nation orientation.• Other areas the individual should be aware of, as determined by the


Figure 5-3. Reception and Integration Counseling Points

Crisis Counseling

5-16. You may conduct crisis counseling to get a soldier through the initialshock after receiving negative news, such as notification of the death of aloved one. You help the soldier by listening and providing assistance, asappropriate. Assistance may include referring the soldier to a support activityor coordinating external agency support. Crisis counseling focuses on thesoldier’s immediate, short-term needs.

Referral Counseling

5-17. Referral counseling helps soldiers work through a personal situation andmay follow crisis counseling. Referral counseling also acts as preventativecounseling before the situation becomes a problem. Usually, the leader assiststhe soldier in identifying the problem.

5-18. Outside agencies can help leaders resolve problems. Although it isgenerally in an individual’s best interest to seek help first from his first lineleader, leaders must always respect an individual’s right to contact theseagencies on their own. Leaders can refer the soldier to the appropriateresource, such as Army Community Services, a Chaplain, or a substance abusecounselor. Additional information on support activities can be found inAppendix B, Army Programs or in FM 6-22 (22-100), Appendix C.


FM 7-22.7


[Helping] soldiers cope with personal problems...means more than referringthe soldier to another person- the chaplain, a doctor, or counselor. Until theproblem is resolved, you have a soldier with a problem in your unit, so it’syour problem.... Let your soldiers know what you’re doing to help them solvetheir problems.

FM 22-600-20, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide, 1980

Promotion Counseling

5-19. Commanders or their designated representatives must conduct promotioncounseling for all specialists, corporals and sergeants who are eligible foradvancement without waiver, but are not recommended for promotion to thenext higher grade. Army regulations require that soldiers within this categoryreceive initial (event-oriented) counseling when they attain full eligibility andthen periodic (performance and personal growth) counseling at least quarterly.

Adverse Separation Counseling

5-20. Adverse separation counseling may involve informing the soldier of theadministrative actions available to the commander in the event substandardperformance continues and of the consequences associated with thoseadministrative actions. (See AR 635-200, Chapter 1, paragraph 1-16 andChapter 17.)

5-21. Developmental counseling may not apply when a soldier has engaged inmore serious acts of misconduct. In those situations, the leader should refer thematter to the commander and the servicing staff judge advocate’s office. Whenthe leader’s rehabilitative efforts fail, counseling with a view towardsseparation fills an administrative prerequisite to many administrativedischarges and serves as a final warning to the soldier to improve performanceor face discharge. In many cases, it may be beneficial to involve the chain ofcommand as soon as you determine that adverse separation counseling mightbe required. The first sergeant or commander should inform the soldier of thenotification requirements outlined in AR 635-200.


Performance Counseling

5-22. During performance counseling, the leader conducts a review of thesoldier’s duty performance during the previous quarter. The leader and soldierjointly establish performance objectives and standards for the next quarter.Rather than dwelling on the past, leaders should focus the session on thesoldier’s strengths, areas needing improvement and potential.


Counseling and Mentorship


Performance counseling informs soldiers about their jobs and the expectedperformance standards and provides feedback on actual performance -- the bestcounseling is always looking forward. It does not dwell on the past and what wasdone, rather on the future and what can be done better.

DA Pam 623-205, “The NCO Evaluation Reporting System ‘In Brief,’” 1988

5-23. Performance counseling is required for noncommissioned officers;mandatory, face-to-face performance counseling between the rater and therated NCO is required under the NCOER system.

5-24. Performance counseling at the beginning of and during the evaluationperiod facilitates a soldier's involvement in the evaluation process.Performance counseling communicates standards and is an opportunity forleaders to establish and clarify the expected values, attributes, skills andactions.

5-25. As an Army leader, you must ensure you've tied your expectations toperformance objectives and appropriate standards. You must establishstandards that your soldiers can work towards and must teach them howto achieve those standards if they are to develop.

The NCO Evaluation Report

5-26. The Noncommissioned Officer Evaluation Reporting System (NCOERS)is designed to –§ Strengthen the ability of the NCO Corps to meet the professional challenges

of the future through the indoctrination of Army values and basic NCOresponsibilities. The continued use of Army values and NCO responsibilitiesas evaluation criteria provides and reinforces a professional focus for therating chain’s view of performance. Over time, this results in acceptance ofthe values and NCO responsibilities, better performance and a stronger NCOCorps.

§ Ensure the selection of the best qualified noncommissioned officers to servein positions of increasing responsibility by providing rating chain view ofperformance/potential for use in centralized selection, assignment and otherEnlisted Personnel Management System (EPMS) decisions. The informationin evaluation reports, the Army’s needs and the individual NCO’squalifications are used together as a basis for such personnel actions asschool selection, promotion, assignment, military occupational specialty(MOS) classification, command sergeant major (CSM) designation andqualitative management.

§ Contribute to Army-wide improved performance and professionaldevelopment by increased emphasis on performance counseling. Evaluationreports provide the NCO formal recognition for performance of duty,measurement of professional values and personal traits and along with theNCO Counseling Checklist/Records are the basis for performance counseling


FM 7-22.7


by rating officials. Senior/subordinate communication is necessary tomaintain high professional standards and is key to an effective evaluationsystem.

5-27. To ensure that sound personnel management decisions can be made andthat an NCO’s potential can be fully developed, evaluation reports must beaccurate and complete. Each report must be a thoughtful, fair appraisal of anNCO’s ability and potential. Reports that are incomplete or fail to provide arealistic and objective evaluation make personnel management decisionsdifficult.

5-28. A single report should not, by itself, determine an NCO’s career. Anappraisal philosophy that recognizes continuous professional development andgrowth (rather than one that demands immediate, uncompromising perfection)best serves the Army and the NCO.

Professional Growth Counseling

5-29. Professional growth counseling is subordinate-centered communicationthat outlines actions necessary for soldiers to achieve individual andorganizational goals and objectives. It is imperative for all leaders to conductprofessional growth counseling with their soldiers to develop the leaders oftomorrow.

5-30. Professional growth counseling begins an initial counseling within 30days of arrival. Additional counseling occurs quarterly thereafter with anassessment at a minimum of once a month. Counseling is a continuousprocess. Reception/Integration/Initial counseling must includegoals/expectations for most current quarter along with long term goals andexpectations.

5-31. During the counseling session a review is conducted jointly by the leaderand soldier to identify and discuss the soldier's strengths/weaknesses and tocreate a plan of action to build upon strengths and overcome weaknesses. Theleader must encourage, remain objective/positive, assist the soldier helphimself and focus more towards the future. This future-oriented approachestablishes short and long-term goals and objectives.

5-32. FM 6-22 (22-100), Appendix B, provides the necessary tools for thesoldier to do a self-assessment based on performance indicators outlined in theleadership dimension. This self-assessment will assist soldiers in identifyingtheir weaknesses and strengths and provide a means of improving theirleadership abilities/skills. All leaders should use the performance indicators inFM 6-22 (22-100), Appendix B, as an assessment tool when counseling their


Counseling and Mentorship


soldiers. This will assist them in providing specific, precise and objectiveguidance to their soldiers.

THE COUNSELING SESSIONThis is an example of a Performance/Professional Growth counseling

session presented in four parts. It shows disagreement between theleader and led on the leadership assessment. This makes the counseling

session difficult for both at first (each is a little defensive). SFC Lang hasdifficulty getting SSG Rovero to do an honest self-appraisal of his

performance. The strategy in this situation is to provide SSG Roverowith clear examples of his leader behavior along with the adverse effects

it is having on the soldiers and the unit.

SFC LANG: Come in.SSG ROVERO: Sorry I’m late, SFC Lang. I got tied up on a job that’s beenrunning late.SFC LANG: Have a seat SSG Rovero and lets get started. Do you have yourself-assessment with you? [This reinforces the expectation that all leaders willprepare a self-assessment prior to developmental counseling. This also is agood technique to try in order to get the subordinate leader to start with most ofthe talking]SSG ROVERO: I have it here somewhere. Yes here it is. You know, SFC Lang,after I finished reading my self-assessment, I realized, hey, I’m pretty good!SFC LANG: You want to know the truth? You are pretty good, but… [Here, theleader is trying to reinforce and recognize good performance even though it’sclear the leader is not satisfied with some other aspects of the subordinateleader’s performance]SSG ROVERO: Thanks. But?SFC LANG: Well, like you said; you always seem to be running late on jobs.SSG ROVERO: Well, some of the guys have been goofing off lately and I justhaven’t been able to get them back in line yet, that’s all. [There can be atendency to place blame or identify causal factors that may or may not bebeyond the control of the subordinate leader]SFC LANG: Well that’s why we’re here.SSG ROVERO: What do you mean? [The leader can expect that somesubordinates will be pretty defensive when it comes to leadership assessment.It will be viewed by some as threatening]SFC LANG: I thought we went over this last week when we set up this meeting.What’d I say then?SSG ROVERO: Something about assessing my leadership strengths; areas Ican improve in…SFC LANG: That’s part of it. The focus is on developing your leadership.SSG ROVERO: That’s funny, Sergeant. I was a squared away NCO until I gothere. Now, all of a sudden I’ve got all this stuff to improve on. [Initially, leaderscan expect to have many soldiers who have never received feedback on theirleadership. As developmental counseling becomes ingrained in the Army, more


FM 7-22.7


soldiers will be comfortable and familiar with leadership assessment anddevelopment]SFC LANG: Well, leadership is a bigger part of your job now. Leadershipresponsibilities increase as you move up in the ranks. You’ve got a lot ofattributes in your favor. Like I said, you have very good technical skills, but…[Again, the leader reinforces the good performance while still trying to get thesubordinate leader to admit and ‘own up’ to the shortcomings that needimprovement]

SSG ROVERO: I run a good shop. Our supply room is always stocked –nobody ever has to borrow a tool from another company. And I go to bat for mysoldiers. Like when Hennessey needed time to take care of some familybusiness. I helped him with that. Right? Isn’t that leadership?SFC LANG: Yes, but that’s not the whole story… [SFC Lang has alreadymentioned she has concerns with SSG Rovero’s leadership. She wants SSGRovero to tell his side of the story and complete his self-assessment. Does hethink everything is going well?]SSG ROVERO: Well, okay, maybe things in the shop aren't going as smoothlyas they should be. And maybe it is my fault, but…

SSG Rovero realizes he could make some improvements in some areas.

SFC LANG: The way I see it, you act like you’re still a mechanic instead of asupervisor. Every time I walk through the bays you’re under some vehicleturning wrenches. But while you’re doing that, who’s making sure all the jobs inthe shop are getting done? Sometimes these young mechanics we’ve got arejust spinning their wheels. Maybe if you spent more time making the roundsand checking up on each job, we’d have a better OR rate. Plus we might beable to get out of here at a decent hour. [SFC Lang knew this would probably


Counseling and Mentorship


be a sore spot with SSG Rovero. But, this is what the supervisor is observingalong with the general effect it is having on soldiers and the unit]SSG ROVERO: I don’t think that is what’s really happening.SFC LANG: OK, I’ve got several observations here; let’s take yesterday forexample. We had three HMMWVs deadlined with electrical problems. Thosenew soldiers, Harris, Jones and Wilson, worked on them all day and stillcouldn’t figure out what was causing the problem. Meanwhile, you’re over withanother HMMWV changing tires. [SFC Lang did her homework. Observing andassessing is part of her daily activity around the motor pool. Specificobservations of leader behavior along with the effects they are having onindividuals, the unit and operational outcomes are key prerequisites todevelopmental activities]SSG ROVERO: Somebody had to do it.SFC LANG: And are the HWMMVs up? [Links behavior to outcomes]SSG ROVERO: We’re working on it.SFC LANG: And when did everybody finish and leave last night? [Again thisquestion links leader behavior to outcomes. SFC Lang asks SSG Rovero ratherthan tells him the outcome to promote ownership]SSG ROVERO: About twenty-one hundred.SFC LANG: We have to agree on what’s happening here.SSG ROVERO: Maybe you’re right, Sergeant. I need to work on myorganizational skills. I’m not comfortable walking around with a list of jobs andchecking up on people. I’d rather do it myself. [It appears as though SFCLang’s detailed assessment resulted in SSG Rovero becoming a little morehonest with himself. Given that SFC Lang also evaluates SSG Rovero, leaderscan expect that soldiers might hesitate to admit to shortcomings]SFC LANG: I understand, but leaders have to learn how to assign tasks andsupervise. That’s the only way our soldier’s will learn.SSG ROVERO: OK, Sergeant.

Once they both agree on the assessment, both SFC Lang and SSG Roverovisibly relax. From this point on, the tone of the counseling session turns

visibly positive and developmental as they talk about ways to improveSSG Rovero’s performance.

SFC LANG: So what could you do to improve your leadership skills? [Actionplan development is a joint activity. The leader should refrain from prescribingdevelopmental tasks unless the subordinate has no clue what to do or where tobegin. Having the soldier identify the developmental task also promotesownership and additional motivation to follow through]SSG ROVERO: I know I need to learn how to delegate tasks. I could prioritizethe work that needs to be done and assign jobs based on experience. That wayI could spend more time training and supervising my more inexperiencedsoldiers. [This reinforces the concept that leaders should solicit the input oftheir soldiers and peers and include them in the decision-making process]SFC LANG: Sounds like you have a good plan. Remember, all your soldiersneed your supervision. [SFC Lang is making a subtle correction here to put alittle more structure into this developmental plan.]SSG ROVERO: Thanks for your help, Sergeant.


FM 7-22.7


MENTORSHIP5-33. Mentorship, probably the singular most misunderstood word surroundingcounseling and leadership. To best understand mentorship, it is best to firstdefine it. Mentorship is a voluntary, developmental relationship that existsbetween a person of greater experience and a person of lesser experience.Mentorship is not just a fancy buzzword. It is a proven approach and avaluable tool for NCO leaders.

“The experiences of the mentor when shared gives the soldier a comparativeview to allow the soldier to develop and grow. The mentor is the sage old owlwho has been there and done that and uses the experience to counsel wiselythat young soldier.”

CSM A. Frank Lever, III

5-34. Note that no specific action is exclusively “mentoring.” In fact, the term“mentoring” is often used to describe a wide array of actions that outside of amentorship relationship refer to the core of leader development such ascounseling, teaching, coaching, role modeling, advising and guiding.

To be an effective mentor, you need the experience and wisdom of your years.You also have to care. If you really care about your soldiers, then you willdevote the necessary time and attention to guiding them. Mentoring can takeplace anywhere. It is a key way to lead and to strengthen Army values.

DA Pam 600-25, “NCO Development Program,” 1987


5-35. Mentorship is clearly a developmental relationship and noncommissionedofficers have a mandate to develop their soldiers. Given that fact, shouldn’t allleader-follower relationships be considered mentorship? Or why confuse theissue by labeling as mentorship what is in the essence, good leadership? Why dowe need mentorship? When those mandated leader development actions occurwithin a mentorship relationship, their potential impact is greatly magnified, bothfor the individual and for the Army. This increase in development is dueprimarily because of the high degree of trust and respect that characterizes amentoring relationship. Simply put good leadership stimulates development;mentorship magnifies that development. See Figure 5-4.

“One of the most important responsibilities of a leader is to train, coach andmentor subordinates… Some folks might maintain a relationship with an oldmentor throughout their careers and use them as a sounding board and forguidance, but most people will have several mentors over their careers. Keepin mind that a mentor is not a substitute for personal research, personalplanning, hard work and dedication to service.”

CSM Larry W. Gammon


Counseling and Mentorship









Counseling Role-Modeling Teaching Guiding MotivatingAdvising Referring Coaching

Figure 5-4. Mentorship Development

5-36. Mentorship can and will augment the natural development that occurs inleadership, but it is not necessary or practical in all leader-followerrelationships. Soldiers will still develop if they are not mentored, butmentorship can be a key element in the development of soldiers, contributingto their greater well-being. We all have experience to give if we have the heart,the spirit and the caring attitude to share these experiences and the lessons wederive from them. Mentoring is simply giving of your knowledge to otherpeople. To be an effective mentor, all you need is experience and the wisdomof your years and one other vital quality — you have to care!

"Soldiers want to know what's going on. They don't want to reinvent thewheel to address problems that someone else has already solved."

CSM Cynthia A. Pritchett


5-37. Mentorship is demanding business, but the future of the Army dependson the trained and effective leaders whom you leave behind. Sometimes itrequires you to set priorities, to balance short-term readiness with long-termleader development. The commitment to mentoring future leaders may requireyou to take risks. It requires you to give soldiers the opportunity to learn anddevelop them while using your experience to guide them withoutmicromanaging. Mentoring will lead your soldiers to successes that build theirconfidence and skills for the future. The key to mentorship in the US Army is


FM 7-22.7


that it is a sustained relationship and may last through the entire career of ayoung soldier and even into retirement.

5-38. While not a formal, mandated program like counseling, mentorship doeshave some very distinct characteristics that we can use as a guide for ourmentoring. See Figure 5-5.

• Personal, voluntary developmental relationship existing betweensoldiers.

• Mentor is a close, trusted and experienced counselor or guide.• Not bound by geographical location.• Mutual agreement on mentoring relationship.• Mentoring relationship devoid of conflicting interests.• Common professional interests.• Enduring relationship, frequency based on need, not predetermined

event or time.• Shared Army Values.• Soldier may have more than one mentor over time.• Two-way communications.• Mentor must be willing to share professional knowledge, training and

experience in a trusted and respected atmosphere.• Mentor maintains confidentiality and trust.• Sincere caring on part of the mentor.• Relationship may be initiated by superior, peer, or subordinate.• Can cross military, civilian, active or retired lines.

Figure 5-5. Mentorship Characteristics

“Soldiers can solve 98 percent of their problems by just talking to someoneabout them. All you have to do is listen.”

SMA William G. Bainbridge


5-39. Senior NCOs have a great deal of experience that is valuable to officers.An officer who has an NCO as a mentor is taking advantage of that experienceand also of the unique perspective NCOs develop in leadership, training andprofessionalism. Even very senior officers seek trusted NCOs’ advice andcounsel. A mentorship relationship that is unique in the Army and the NCOCorps is the relationship between a platoon sergeant and his young platoonleader. Especially in their early years, young officers need to be paired withsenior experienced NCOs. The relationship that frequently comes from thisexperience tends to be instrumental in the young officers' development. Young


Counseling and Mentorship


officers may forget a lot of things about their time in the military, but they willnever forget, good or bad, their first platoon sergeant.


5-40. Mentorship offers unparalleled opportunities to build a better Army. Ifyou are a noncommissioned officer and are not mentoring several promisingyoung leaders, you are missing an important opportunity to contribute to theArmy’s future. Mentorship is the single, easiest way to develop young leaders.But to do so, the mentor must be willing to commit the time and energynecessary to do it right and to set the conditions for success so young leaderswill seek him out to be their mentor.

“Becoming a mentor should not be a hasty endeavor. It is not a part-time job.It is an intense relationship between teacher and student. The processrequires time and caring. Effective mentors are totally committed to spendingthe necessary time and attention it takes to share values, attitudes and beliefs.This includes helping a soldier make career decisions and providing supportand encouragement that allow leaders to grow.”

CSM Christine E. Seitzinger

Near the end of the session, SSG Rovero starts taking charge of his actionplan – identifying, without SFC Lang’s assistance, things he can do toimprove his leadership. As the session closes, there is a renewed air of

respect and understanding between SFC Lang and SSG Rovero.


FM 7-22.7


SFC LANG: Why don’t you read back to me what you’ve got. [Asdevelopmental sessions come to a close, it is important to review tasks andconfirm what was said earlier in the session]SSG ROVERO: Okay. [Making notes to himself.] “Conduct an AAR with themaintenance section; observe Sergeant Leroy supervising maintenanceoperations.”SFC LANG: Those should both work to improve Executing. [SFC Langreinforces the leadership doctrinal framework by listing developmental tasksIAW with the value, attribute, skill and/or action it is designed to improve]SSG ROVERO: One I just thought of, “develop a daily plan for supervisingmaintenance operations.” I think if I just sat down each morning and split up thejobs better, plus figure out where I’m needed most… [This is an ideal outcometo be sought after in developmental counseling — the subordinate leader comingup with and identifying developmental tasks. Also note the total number of tasksidentified. A few clearly defined tasks with high potential for improvement andare better than numerous, ill-defined tasks with questionable outcomes]SFC LANG: Sounds good. OR rate is bound to go up. And just think of whatthis is going to do to everybody’s motivation around here – getting home at adecent hour. And I’ll let Sergeant LeRoy know you’re coming over to have alook at his maintenance operations. [Again, the action plan may very wellrequire action on the part of the leader, not just the subordinate leader. At aminimum the leader is going to have to plan and allocate time to get out andmake subsequent observations of the leader to assess whether or notimprovement is being made and perhaps conduct some on-the-spot coaching].Well, Sergeant, we’ve had some pretty straight talk here on things that need toimprove. And don’t forget you’ve got a lot going for you. Best technical skill I’veseen. Keep up the good work. [Action plans are also about sustaining the ‘goodstuff.’ In closing the session, SFC Lang is conscience of the need to reinforceand communicate what SSG Rovero is doing well]SSG ROVERO: Appreciate that, SFC Lang.

5-41. During the counseling, the leader and soldier conduct a review toidentify and discuss the soldier’s strengths and weaknesses and create a plan ofaction to build upon strengths and overcome weaknesses. This counseling isnot normally event-driven. The discussion may include opportunities forcivilian or military schooling, future duty assignments, special programs andreenlistment options. Every person’s needs are different and leaders mustapply specific courses of action tailored to each soldier.



Appendix A

Sergeant’s Time Training

Why it is.................................................................................... A-1What it is................................................................................... A-1 Who conducts STT................................................................. A-2 What Training Occurs During STT.......................................... A-2 NCO Responsibilities............................................................. A-2What it is Not............................................................................. A-3A Technique.............................................................................. A-3

WHY IT ISA-1. NCOs are the primary trainers of our soldiers. Sergeant’s Time Training(STT) affords a prime opportunity for developing our first line leaders whilethey gain confidence of their soldiers. Active Component commanders shouldinstitute STT as a regular part of the units training program. This will allowNCOs to train certain tasks to their soldiers in a small group environment.Tasks must crosswalk all the way to the Battalion Mission Essential Task List(METL) and commanders must direct their focus on the Quarterly TrainingGuidance.

"[Sergeant’s Time Training] is where you bring it all together. NCOs plan it,they execute it, they evaluate it and they decide whether or not retraining iswarranted. One day a week for five continuous hours NCOs have all theirsoldiers mandated to be present at training."

GEN Eric K. Shinseki

A-2. STT is an excellent tool in preparing our soldiers to fight and win ourNation’s wars in combat operations. Commanders should set this time asideexclusively for the NCO leadership to train their soldiers (squads, sections,crews and teams) on METL related tasks under realistic as possible conditions.In combat, it will be the first line leaders that ensure steady and preciseexecution by our soldiers. NCOs and their soldiers must have the confidencethat their unit can accomplish essential combat skills to standard. From STTsoldiers develop greater confidence in their first line leaders and those leadersgain more confidence in themselves. Sergeant’s Time Training is our bestopportunity to build that leadership. Therefore, we need to use the time wisely.

WHAT IT ISA-3. Sergeant’s Time Training is hands-on, practical training for soldiersgiven by their NCOs. It provides our NCOs with resources and the authority to



FM 7-22.7


bring training publications or Technical Manuals to life and to develop thetrust between leader and led to ensure success in combat. In the ActiveComponent, the chain of command and NCO support channel support thisvital training event by scheduling five uninterrupted hours of STT each week,usually conducted on Thursday mornings from 0700 – 1200 hours. In theReserve Component, STT may be difficult to accomplish during a typical UnitTraining Assembly or even during Annual Training. But even RC unitsshould plan and conduct STT after mobilization.


A-4. First line leaders are the primary trainers during STT and should strivefor 100% of their soldier’s present for training. Platoon sergeants assist in thepreparation and execution of the training. Officers provide the METL andresources (time, personnel and equipment) to evaluate training and providefeedback to commanders. Senior NCOs should protect this program againstdistractions and provide leadership and guidance as necessary to the first lineleader. They must train their soldiers to standard (not to time) oriented onspecific tasks to provide the important one-on-one exchange between NCOleaders and their soldiers.


A-5. NCOs conduct a training assessment and recommend what MOS soldiertask or crew and squad collective training they need to conduct during STT.Topics are based on the small unit leader’s assessment of training areas thatneed special attention. The small unit leader recommends the subjects forSergeant’s Time Training at unit training meetings so that the training can beidentified, resourced and rehearsed prior to execution. The commander putsthis training on the training schedule four to six weeks prior to execution.Schedule resources for the training four weeks before the training.


A-6. Command sergeants major will monitor and provide detailed guidancefor STT, provide technical expertise, check training to ensure standards areestablished and maintained and advise both commanders and first sergeants ontheir program. Preparation is the key to a successful training session andprogram.

A-7. First sergeants will ensure that NCOs scheduled to conduct training do arisk assessment and rehearse the class prior to training their soldiers.

A-8. Sergeant’s Time Training may be used to train soldiers in a low-densityMOS by consolidating soldiers across battalion / brigade and otherorganizations. The senior NCO in a low-density MOS conducts training forother soldiers holding that MOS even if he doesn’t supervise the soldiers


Sergeant’s Time Training


directly. Commanders and their NCOs decide on the frequency of low-densityMOS training but it usually occurs once or twice a month. An example forlow-density MOS training is that for supply clerks in a TransportationBattalion. Even for low-density MOS training, the Battalion CSM and eachfirst sergeant is responsible for implementation of the program.

WHAT IT IS NOTA-9. Sergeant’s Time Training is not company or battery time, nor is it a“round robin” training event. Company / battery annual mandatory training,physical training, inventories, weapons and routine maintenance should notoccur during this time. STT should be hands on training, involving all soldiersand that builds proficiency in essential warfighting tasks. Do not have platoonsergeants as instructors; they should be checking training and ensuring it isconducted to standard. Your unit should conduct STT regularly except duringextraordinary events like post-operations maintenance or during field trainingexercises. You may have minimum essential phone watch, CQs and guards.

A TECHNIQUEA-10. While many units have their own, unique way of conducting STT, someaspects are universal. The training will be standard oriented and not timeoriented. Continue training on a task until soldiers are proficient in that task,that is, they receive a “GO” or perform the task to standard. You should usethe training management cycle when developing and executing your STT. Usehands-on-training as much as possible. All first line supervisors will maintaina file with the task, conditions and standards for each task and record eachsoldier’s proficiency in those tasks.

A-11. Supervisors maintain a Sergeant’s Time Training Book with a list ofcollective and individual tasks their squad/section/team/crew must beproficient in to support their Battery/Company METL. Rate each task as “T”(trained), “P” (needs practice), or “U” (untrained). The full text of these tasksis in the appropriate MTP. This information is essential input for trainingassessments and training meetings.

A-12. Sergeant’s Time Training is an NCO led program. The first linesupervisor must be able to justify to the chain of command why he is training aselected task, such as it was a training weakness during the last FTX. Youshould not train on a “T” task before a “U” task. If a supervisor can justify histraining plan, then the training is probably worthwhile and necessary. Forexample, units that are not Table VIII qualified must train on those tasks untilqualified. This would be an example of a collective task that is a “U.”

A-13. Have written task, conditions and standards prepared for each trainingevent. Post the task, condition and standards so that any visitor that enters the


FM 7-22.7


training site knows what task is you are training and who the instructor isconducting the class. Additionally, designate a secondary instructor so thesupervisor on site can brief any visitors.

A-14. At the end of Sergeant’s Time Training, the supervisor will assess thetraining conducted and make recommendations for future training. If the taskcould not be trained to standard, then the supervisor should reschedule thesame task for a future Sergeant’s Time. Leaders should annotate the results ofthe STT in their leader books.

A-15. The Sergeant’s Time Training Book should contain as a minimum:• Unit METL with all collective tasks supporting each METL task and each

individual task supporting each collective task.• Critical individual tasks, must be accomplished in order to make the

collective task work, must be identified.• Lesson plan.• A soldier sign-in accountability status sheet roster.• A visitor sign-in roster.• Risk assessment checklist, completed.• The Sergeant’s Time Training Book must be at your site location at all times

during training.

A-16. Sergeant’s Time Training equipment required at the training locationincludes:

• All soldiers are in the same uniform IAW, your unit’s SOP.• Operational equipment to train on (tank, aiming circle, Launcher/Loader,

etc.)• Required reference materials.• Butcher board and writing instruments.• Visual training aids required.

A-17. An Example Sergeant’s Time Training Timeline:• 0700 - 1130 instruction / hands-on test/ AAR after each task.• 1130 - 1200 final AAR, return to unit area.

A-18. You as an NCO and a leader are responsible for conducting Sergeant’sTime Training to standard and not to time. Your soldiers will rely on you toprovide them with realistic training conducted in a field environment. Don’tdisappoint your soldiers by not being prepared and your STT won’t be a wasteof their time. This is your chance to teach your soldiers those important tasks.Set the example.



Appendix B

Army Programs

Transition Assistance ............................................................... B-1Equal Opportunity..................................................................... B-2Equal Employment Opportunity …………………………………….B-2Education.................................................................................. B-2Army Substance Abuse Program.............................................. B-3Army Emergency Relief ............................................................ B-4Quality of Life Programs........................................................... B-4

Army Sponsorship Program .................................................. B-4Better Opportunities For Single Soldiers (BOSS) .................. B-5American Red Cross.............................................................. B-5Army Community Service (ACS)............................................ B-6Morale, Welfare and Recreation............................................. B-7Army Family Action Plan ....................................................... B-7

Family Readiness Programs..................................................... B-7

B-1. This appendix includes aspects of military programs that include humanresources management, education, community and family support programs.The Army has entered into a partnership with its soldiers and families to makeavailable programs and services needed. These are to provide a quality of lifethat is equal to that of their fellow Americans. Personnel and communityactivities reach all components of the America's Army family. These activitiescover a broad spectrum of programs and services. They extend from themanagement of civilian and military personnel to issues related to familyprograms. Child and youth services, child abuse or neglect and spouse abuse,exceptional family members and relocation and transition assistance are oftenemotional and routinely demand command attention. The programs directlyimpact morale, organizational esprit and personal development. As the Armybecomes a smaller force, it fosters even greater expectations for continuedQuality of Life (QOL) programs.

TRANSITION ASSISTANCEB-2. The Army Career and Alumni Program (ACAP) serves as thecommander's primary agency for developing, coordinating and deliveringtransition employment services. It supports eligible soldiers, DA Civilians andtheir families. The ACAP consists of a Transition Assistance Office (TAO)and a job assistance center. The TAO must be the first step in the transitionprocess. The TAO provides individual transition plans, integrates installationservices and provides quality control to the transition process. The jobassistance center is the contracted installation service provider delivering job



FM 7-22.7


search skills and access to a national and local job resource database andcareer counseling. Through the services of ACAP, the Army shows that it doestake care of its own. ACAP provides assistance to individuals leaving activeduty as well as DA Civilian employees who are also transitioning to the workforce as private citizens. The Army Community Service provides theseservices on installations that do not have ACAP offices.

EQUAL OPPORTUNITYB-3. The Equal Opportunity (EO) program formulates, directs and sustains acomprehensive effort to maximize human potential and to ensure fairtreatment for all persons based solely on merit, fitness and capability insupport of readiness. EO philosophy is based on fairness, justice and equity.Commanders are responsible for sustaining a positive EO climate within theirunits. Specifically, the goals of the EO program are to-

• Provide EO for military personnel and family members, both on and offpost and within the limits of the laws of localities, states and hostnations. AR 600-20, Chapter 6 provides further information.

• Create and sustain effective units by eliminating discriminatorybehaviors or practices that undermine teamwork, mutual respect, loyaltyand shared sacrifice of the men and women of America’s Army.

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITYB-4. The Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Program has similar goals asthe EO Program but is designed to assist and protect the civilians supportingthe Army and Department of Defense. It ensures equal opportunity in all aspects ofemployment for Army civilian employees and applicants for employment. Employmentpolicies and practices in DA will be free from unlawful discrimination based on race,color, religion, sex, age, national origin, or handicap. The basic principle of equalemployment opportunity underlies all aspects of the civilian personnel managementprogram in the Army. The implementation of the program allows civilianemployees to make complaints when they believe they have beendiscriminated against. More information is available in AR 690-12 and AR690-600.

“We want our army to be society’s model of fair treatment. We want toassure that all soldiers are treated fairly, not because it is necessary butbecause it is right.”

SMA Silas L. Copeland

EDUCATIONB-5. The Army Continuing Education System (ACES) provides educationalprograms and services to support the professional and personal development ofsoldiers, adult family members and DA Civilians. ACES programs help to


Army Programs


improve the combat readiness of America's Army by expanding soldier skills,knowledge and aptitudes to produce confident, competent leaders. Educationprograms and services support the enlistment, retention and transition ofsoldiers. ACES instills the organizational value of education within the Army.It promotes the professional and personal value of education to the individualsoldier. Education centers provide support for all military, civilian and familymembers through local community colleges and universities.

ARMY SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMB-6. The Army Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) is a comprehensivecommand program providing assistance to active duty and retired servicemembers and their families with substance abuse problems. Commandinvolvement throughout the identification, referral, screening and elevationprocess is critical. ASAP participation is mandatory for soldiers who arecommand referred. Refusal to participate constitutes violation of a direct order.Soldiers who fail to participate in or fail to respond successfully torehabilitation must leave the Army. Soldiers begin rehabilitation throughvoluntary (self-referral), command referrals, biochemical, medical andinvestigation and apprehension. Commanders must refer all soldiers for anevaluation if they suspect a problem may exist. This includes knowledge that asoldier was convicted of Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) off post or out ofstate. Referral is not punishment and commanders should not wait until thematter is resolved in court.

B-7. An ASAP counselor will conduct an initial screening evaluationinterview as soon as possible with any soldier being referred to the ASAP andwill recommend one or more of the following:

• Counseling by the unit commander.• Referral to another agency such as ACS or Mental Health.• No ASAP service required.• Enrollment in ASAP rehabilitation.

B-8. The commander’s attitude and involvement are critical in therehabilitation process. The commander must ensure that soldiers suspected ofhaving substance abuse problems have the chance for evaluation andtreatment. The objectives of rehabilitation are to return the soldier to full dutyas soon as possible and identify those who cannot be rehabilitated.Rehabilitation of substance abusers is a command responsibility. For moreinformation see AR 600-85.


FM 7-22.7


ARMY EMERGENCY RELIEFB-9. The Army Emergency Relief (AER) is a non-profit organization. It isdedicated to providing assistance to –

• Active duty soldiers and their dependents.• Soldiers of the Army National Guard and US Army, Reserve on active duty

for more than 30 days and their dependents.• Retirees and their dependents.• Surviving spouses and orphans of soldiers who died while on active duty or

after they retired.

B-10. AER can usually help with emergency needs for: rent, utilities (notincluding phone or cable television), food, emergency travel, emergency POVrepair, up front funeral expenses of parents, spouse or child and emergencymedical or dental expenses. AER cannot help with: nonessential needs,ordinary leave or vacation, fines or legal expenses, debt payments, homepurchases or improvements, purchase, rental, or lease of a vehicle, funds tocover bad checks and marriage or divorce.

B-11. Active duty soldiers who need assistance may get the appropriate form(DA 1103) at their unit obtain the commander’s authorization. Unaccompanieddependents, surviving spouses or orphans, retirees and others not assigned toor under control of your installation may get forms at the AER office. Allapplicants need their military ID card and substantiating documents (i.e., carrepair estimate, rental contract, etc.). Army members can also receiveassistance at any Navy Relief, Air Force Aid Society or Coast Guard MutualAssistance Office. If not near a military installation, soldiers can receiveassistance through the American Red Cross. For more information see AR930-4.

QUALITY OF LIFE PROGRAMSB-12. Quality of life (QOL) is dedicated to the precept that the Army's numberone operational resource must be taken care of. A number of programsimprove Army Quality of Life.


B-13. The Army Sponsorship Program provides the structure for units towelcome and help prepare soldiers for their new duty station in advance oftheir actual arrival. Not only does the program help a soldier learn about hisnew assignment but the sponsor (appointed by the commander to assist theincoming soldier) may also send housing or local schools information to theincoming soldier. The sponsor is the key to helping the new soldier and hisfamily get comfortably settled as quickly as possible, thereby putting his mind


Army Programs


at rest so he can concentrate on his military duties as soon as possible.Sponsorship programs include the following:

• In-Sponsorship.• Out-Sponsorship.• Reactionary Sponsorship.• Rear Detachment Sponsorship.• New Manning Systems.• Unit Sponsorship.

For more information on Army Sponsorship see AR 600-8-8 and your unitSponsorship Program proponent.


B-14. Better Opportunities for Single Soldiers (BOSS) is a program thatsupports the overall quality of single soldier’s lives. BOSS identifies well-being issues and concerns by recommending improvements through the chainof command. BOSS encourages and assists single soldiers in identifying andplanning for recreational and leisure activities. Additionally, it gives singlesoldiers the opportunity to participate in and contribute to their respectivecommunities. The Three Pillars of BOSS are the following:

§ Recreation: Activities may be planned by the BOSS committee or by theBOSS committee working in conjunction with other Morale, Welfare andRecreation activities. Soldiers will assume a lead role in planning BOSSevents. Events should be planned that meet the needs and desires of the singlesoldiers.

§ Community Service : The BOSS committee may elect to participate incommunity programs or projects that make a difference in the lives of others,in the community and ultimately, in themselves. The service will bevoluntary in nature and in accordance with the installation volunteer program.The program can be implemented in support of existing or establishedvolunteer programs or programs developed by the BOSS committee.

§ Quality of Life : For single soldiers, QOL includes those actions soldiers takethat directly or indirectly enhance their morale, living environment, orpersonal growth and development. The QOL issue identified or raised duringthe BOSS meetings will be directed to the appropriated command or staffa*gency for resolution on the installation.


B-15. Today's American Red Cross service to the armed forces is keeping pacewith the changing military through its network of 900 local chapters and 109offices located on military installations. Both active duty and community-based military can count on the Red Cross to provide emergency


FM 7-22.7


communication services around-the-clock, 365 days a year, keeping theservice member and his/her family in touch across the miles. Although we aremost familiar with the Red Cross messages when there is a family emergency,the Red Cross also provides access to financial assistance through the militaryaid societies, counseling, information and referral and veteran’s assistance.While not a part of the Department of Defense, Red Cross staff membersdeploy along side the military to such areas as Afghanistan, Kosovo, SaudiArabia and Kuwait—working and living amongst the troops to ensure theyreceive vital Red Cross services. The Red Cross often conducts blood drivesand offers a full menu of disaster and health and safety training courses.These activities are available to service members and their families at RedCross chapters and on military installations. For additional information on RedCross programs and services go to and click on AFES(Armed Forces Emergency Services) or call toll free 1-877-272-7337.


B-16. Army Community Service (ACS) centers are the hub for social serviceprograms designed to meet the needs of the America's Army family. The ACSmission is to assist commanders in maintaining readiness of individuals,families and communities within the America's Army family. They do this bydeveloping, coordinating and delivering services. These services promote self-reliance, resiliency and stability during war and peace. ACS programs areincreasingly prevention oriented, with an emphasis on working more closelywith commanders. Federal law, executive order and DOD policy mandatemany of the programs provided by ACS. The following ACS programs exist atArmy installations worldwide—

• Mobilization and Deployment Assistance.• Information, Referral and Follow-up Program.• Relocation Assistance Program (RAP).• Consumer Affairs and Financial Assistance Program (CAFAP).• Family Member Employment Assistance Program (FMEAP).• Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP).• Family Advocacy Program (FAP).• Pre/Post Mobilization Support.• Army Family Team Building (AFTB).• Volunteers.• Family Readiness Group (FRG) Program.• Army Family Action Plan Program (AFAP).

“Knowing where to get answers is just as important as having them.”

MSG Douglas E. Freed


Army Programs



B-17. The Morale, Welfare and Recreation (MWR) program improves unitreadiness by promoting fitness, building morale and cohesion, enhancingquality of life and providing recreational, social and other support services forsoldiers, civilians and their families. During peacetime, the scope of MWRincludes sports activities, recreation centers, libraries, clubs, bowling centers,golf centers, outdoor recreation, arts and crafts and entertainment. During warand operations other than war, the MWR network provides services to thetheater of operations. These services are in the form of unit recreation, librarybook kits, sports programs and rest areas at brigade level and higher. Militaryand civilian MWR personnel staff these activities and services. The MWRnetwork also provides facilities such as unit lounges, recreation centers withsnack bars and activity centers for soldiers that house a number of MWRfunctions.


B-18. The Army Family Action Plan (AFAP) is input from the people of theArmy to Army leadership. It's a process that lets soldiers and families saywhat's working, what isn't AND what they think will fix it. It alertscommanders and Army leaders to areas of concern that need their attention,and it gives them the opportunity to quickly put plans into place to worktoward resolving the issues.

• Gives commanders a gauge to validate concerns and measure satisfaction• Enhances Army’s corporate image• Helps retain the best and brightest• Results in legislation, policies, programs and services that strengthen

readiness and retention• Safeguards well-being


B-19. The mission of family readiness programs is to foster total Army familyreadiness, as mission accomplishment is directly linked to soldiers' confidencethat their families are safe and capable of carrying on during their absence.The exchange system provides basic health, hygiene and personal care needsto soldiers and Army civilians. A wide variety of resources are available toassist spouses. Access most of these through Army Knowledge Online or yourunit NCO support channel:

• Married Army Couples Program.• Unit Family Readiness Groups.• Family Care Plans.• Army Family Liaison Office.


FM 7-22.7


• Army Family Team Building.• Army Family Action Plan Forums.• Family Program Academies (USAR).• Spouse’s Guide to BSB and Garrison Commands.• Army Financial Management.• Information and Referral programs.• Budget counseling.• Emergency Financial Assistance Resources.• Counseling and Counseling Referrals.• Child and Spouse Abuse Treatment and Prevention.• Employment Assistance.• Exceptional Family Member Program.• Relocation Assistance.• Deployment and Mobilization Support.



Appendix C

Leader Book

C-1. The leader book is a tool for the NCO to maintain up-to-date, easy-to-reference information on soldiers, training status, maintenance status andequipment accountability. There are many versions of the leader book both inofficial Army publications and on the commercial market. Your unit may haveexample forms already. In the following pages you will find example formsthat may be useful in building your leader book.

C-2. Leaders are responsible for providing training assessments to the chain ofcommand on their soldiers and units. Commanders use these assessments tomake training decisions. The leader book gives leaders a tool that efficientlytracks soldier, training and equipment status.

C-3. The leader book is a tool for recording and tracking soldier proficiency onmission-oriented tasks. The exact composition of leader books variesdepending on the mission and type of unit. Use the leader book to:

• Track and evaluate soldiers' training status and proficiency on essentialsoldier tasks.

• Provide administrative input to the chain of command on the proficiency ofthe unit; for example platoon, squad or crew.

• Conduct soldier performance counseling.

ORGANIZATIONC-4. The organization of the leader book is up to each individual leader. To beeffective they must be well organized and "user friendly." Only essentialtraining information should be in the leader book. Your unit may requireadditional items to this recommended organization:

SECTION 1: Administrative soldier data.SECTION 2: Training Guidance, Company METL/PLT supporting collectivetask list with assessments.SECTION 3: CTT proficiency (survival skills).SECTION 4: Essential soldier task proficiency and status.SECTION 5: Unit collective task proficiency.SECTION 6: Equipment accountability and status.


FM 7-22.7



C-5. Administrative soldier data sheets contain everything leaders need toknow about their soldiers. The Standard Army Training System (SATS) cangenerate such a list or the leader can make one. Recommended information forsoldier data sheets includes the following:

• Name, rank, age, TIS, TIG, DOR and duty position.• Current weapon qualification.• APFT score/date.• Height/weight data.• Family data.• Special medical data.


C-6. Leaders need to maintain copies of both company METL and platoonsupporting collective task lists in their leader books. Having these lists andcurrent assessments helps leaders select the appropriate individual andcollective tasks that require training emphasis. This list can be in any formatthat the leader chooses. A recommended technique is to list the task, thecurrent assessment and also a "why" for the assessment.


C-7. Common Task Test (CTT) proficiency is critical information for allleaders. GO/NO GO data should be recorded for each soldier, along with thedate of the evaluation. Knowing this information allows leaders to selectappropriate opportunity training. Since company headquarters maintainindividual soldiers' DA Forms 5164, leaders must develop their own systemfor tracking CTT proficiency.


C-8. Leaders select and track the proficiency of MOS-specific tasks thatsupport the company METL/platoon supporting collective task list. Byknowing the exact status of these essential tasks leaders can quickly identifyweaknesses and plan and conduct training to improve proficiency.

C-9. The Standard Army Training System (SATS) provides assessment sheetsthat support some MTPs and ARTEP manuals. If SATS does not have anautomated MTP for a particular unit, then leaders must develop their owntracking forms. The same information that is found on the SATS form shouldbe reflected on the self-developed form.


Leader Book



C-10. Leaders must know the proficiency of their units to perform thecollective tasks and drills that support the platoon supporting collective tasklist. Leaders derive section/squad/crew collective tasks from the applicableMTPs. Units without a published MTP must determine for themselves whichcollective tasks and drills support the platoon supporting collective tasks. Inmany cases the section/squad/crew collective task list will be identical to theplatoon list.

C-11. SATS does not provide a collective task proficiency tracking form.Recommended information for collective task proficiency forms includes:

• Collective task.• Assessment blocks (T-P-U or GO/NO GO).• Date training last executed.• Reason for assessment/strategy to improve.• Training Assessment Model.


C-12. Soldier counseling is an essential element of a leader's duties. The leaderbook is a natural focal point for performance counseling. Leaders strive to linkcounseling to demonstrated performance and the leader book provides thenecessary training information. The extent that counseling can be tracked withthe leader book is the leader's decision. Some leaders may want to maintain theDA Form 2166-8-1, NCO Counseling Checklist/Record, for each subordinateNCO and the DA Form 4856-E, Developmental Counseling Form, for eachsoldier.

C-13. Another technique is to keep a log of soldier counseling sessions in theleader book. Leaders still use the leader book to assist in counseling, butmaintain the actual counseling forms in a separate file. This provides theleader an easy reference for periodic assessments and feedback and trackingnew soldiers’ progress.


C-14. This is a listing of sensitive items, vehicles and other key equipmentwith the soldier responsible for each and the status of each item. Don’t forgetto check the serial numbers on sensitive items.


C-15. Leader books are an integral part of everyday training. Leadershabitually carry their leader books with them during the training day. Shortly


FM 7-22.7


after training is evaluated leaders update the appropriate section of their leaderbook. By keeping up with the current status of the training of their soldiers,leaders can give timely and accurate assessments to their leaders.


C-16. Leader books are "part of the uniform" for both company and platoontraining meetings. Accurate leader books add credibility to trainingassessments and form the basis for requesting training. Good leader booksserve as a tool for leaders to determine what tasks need training and what tasksdo not.

NOTE:Leader books are leader business, not inspector's business. They should not be

formally inspected. Their periodic review by the chain of command is appropriate.Leaders should not lose sight of the purpose of the leader book—that of being a self-designed tool to assist leaders in tracking the training proficiency of their soldiers.They come in many shapes and forms; there is no approved solution or format. To

formally inspect them would be inappropriate.


Leader Book


Example Leader Book Blank Pages

Daily Status Report C-6

Personal Data Sheet C-7

Promotion Data C-8

Counseling Data C-9

Common Task Test Results C-10

Weapon Density and Training Status C-11

Army Physical Fitness Test Data C-12

Vehicle Status C-13

Sensitive Item Data C-14

8 Steps to Training C-15

Chain of Command and NCO Support Channel C-16

Troop Leading Procedures C-18

Five Paragraph Operations Order C-20

Risk Management Matrix C-22


FM 7-22.7


Example Daily Status Report

ASSIGNED ______________ SICK CALL_________________ATTACHED ______________HOSPITAL__________________LEAVE/PASS___________AWOL/DESERTION____________FIELD DUTY ___________PRESENT FOR DUTY ___________NAME RANK DUTY STATUS


Leader Book


Example Personal Data Sheet

NAME:_________________ SSN:___________ RANK:_____ DATE ASSIGNED _________INITIAL COUNSELING DATE: ___________ 1SG/CDR INBRIEF DATE: ___________________CSM/BN CDR INBRIEF DATE: ______________ SECURITY CLEARANCE: ________________DATE OF LAST NCOER (ENDING MONTH): ___________ NEXT NCOER DUE: ____________PULHES: ___________ HT: _______ WT: ________ BLOOD TYPE: _______ DOB: ____________RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE: ________________ GT: _______ PMOS: __________ SMOS:_______ASI: ____ BPED: ______ BASD: _________ DEROS: __________ ETS: _________DUTY POSITION: _________________________ PARA/LINE NUMBER __________/_________HISTORY OF: HEAT INJURY _____________________ COLD INJURY _____________________LAST HIV TEST: __________________ LAST DENTAL EXAM: _____________ CAT: _______CIVILIAN EDUCATION LEVEL: _____________________________________________________MILITARY SCHOOLS: _____________________________________________________________MILITARY AWARDS: ______________________________________________________________CIVILIAN DRIVER’S LICENSE NUMBER: _____________________ STATE OF ISSUE:_______POV TYPE AND MAKE: _________________________ LAST POV INSPECTION: ____________POV INSURANCE POLICY NUMBER: _________________ EXP IRATION DATE: ____________MILITARY DRIVER’S LICENSE ISSUED: _____________________________________________TYPE OF VEHICLES LICENSED FOR: ________________________________________________COLD WEATHER DRIVER’S TRAINING DATE:________________________________________TYPE OF PERSONAL WEAPON ISSUED: _____________________________________________WEAPON SERIAL NUMBER: __________________________ RACK NUMBER: _____________PERSONAL WEAPON QUALIFICATION RATING: EXP / SHARP / MARKSMANWEAPON QUALIFICATION DATE: _________________________________________________PROTECTIVE MASK TYPE: ___________ SIZE: ______ MASK NUMBER:__________________DATE MASK FITTED: __________________ MOPP GEAR SIZE: TOP: ______ BOTTOM:______SHOES: _________ GLOVES: ____________ GLASSES: YES / NO INSERTS: _______________MILITARY CLOTHING ISSUE INVENTORY DATE:_____________________________________SHORT TERM GOALS (1-5 YEARS):__________________________________________________LONG TERM GOALS (5-10 YEARS): _________________________________________________HOBBIES: ________________________________________________________________________MARITAL STATUS: SINGLE / MARRIED / DIVORCED/ WIDOWED ANN IV DATE: _________SPOUSE’S NAME: __________________________ NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS:_____________NUMBER OF COMMAND SPONSORED DEPENDENTS: ________________________________CHILDREN’S NAMES AND AGES: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________TYPE OF QUARTERS: GOVERNMENT / GOVERNMENT LEASED / LOCAL ECONOMYHOME PHONE NUMBER: _________________ WORK PHONE NUMBER:__________________EMAIL: __________________________ LOCAL ADDRESS:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________NEXT OF KIN’S NAME: ____________________________________________________________NEXT OF KIN’S ADDRESS:_________________________________________________________NEXT OF KIN’S PHONE NUMBER (INCLUDE AREA CODE): ____________________________NEXT OF KIN’S RELATIONSHIP: ____________________________________________________HOME OF RECORD:________________________________________________________________

OTHER INFORMATION:____________________________________________



FM 7-22.7


Example Promotion Data




Leader Book


Example Counseling Data







FM 7-22.7


Example Common Task Test Results




Leader Book


Example Weapon Density and Training Status



FM 7-22.7


Example Army Physical Fitness Test Data






Leader Book


Example Vehicle Status






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Example Sensitive Items Data



Leader Book


Example 8 Steps to Training











FM 7-22.7


The Chain of Command and NCO Support Channel

Chain of Command NCO Support Channel

Commander in Chief: _______________________

Secretary of Defense: _______________________

Chairman, Joint Chiefs: _____________________

Secretary of the Army: ______________________

Army Chief of Staff: _______________________ SMA: ________________________

Theater/MACOM CDR: ____________________ CSM: ________________________

Corps CDR: ______________________________ CSM: ________________________

DIV CDR: _______________________________ CSM: ________________________

BDE CDR: _______________________________ CSM: _______________________

BN CDR: ________________________________ CSM: ________________________

Co/Bty/Trp CDR: __________________________ 1SG: ________________________

PLT LDR: ________________________________ PSG: ________________________

Squad / Section / Team Leader: _______________________


Leader Book



FM 7-22.7


Troop Leading Procedures

STEP 1. Receive the Mission . This may be in the form of a Warning Order(WARNORD), an Operation Order (OPORD), or a Fragmentary Order (FRAGO).Analyze it using the factors of Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, Time available andCivilian considerations (METT-TC).

(1) Use no more than one third of the available time for planning and issuing theoperation order.

(2) Determine what are the specified tasks (you were told to accomplish), theessential tasks (must accomplish to succeed) and the implied tasks (necessarybut not spelled out).

(3) Plan preparation activity backward from the time of execution.

STEP 2. Issue a Warning Order. Provide initial instructions to your soldiers in aWARNORD. Include all available information and update as often as necessary.Certain information must be in the warning order:

(1) The mission or nature of the operation.(2) Participants in the operation.(3) Time of the operation.(4) Time and place for issuance of the operation order.

STEP 3. Make a Tentative Plan . Gather and consider key information for use inmaking a tentative plan. Update the information continuously and refine the plan asneeded. Use this plan as the starting point for coordination, reconnaissance andmovement instructions. Consider the factors of METT-TC:

(1) Mission. Review the mission to ensure you fully understand all tasks.(2) Enemy. Consider the type, size, organization, tactics and equipment of theenemy. Identify the greatest threat to the mission and their greatest vulnerability.(3) Terrain. Consider the effects of terrain and weather using Observation,Concealment, Obstacles, Key Terrain and Avenues of Approach (Oco*kA).(4) Troops available. Consider the strength of subordinate units, the characteristicsof weapon systems and the capabilities of attached elements when assigning tasksto subordinate units.(5) Time available. Refine the allocation of time based on the tentative plan andany changes to the situation.(6) Civilian considerations. Consider the impact of the local population or othercivilians on operations.

STEP 4. Start Necessary Movement. Get the unit moving to where it needs to be assoon as possible.

STEP 5. Reconnoiter. If time allows, make a personal reconnaissance to verify yourterrain analysis, adjust the plan, confirm the usability of routes and time any criticalmovements. Otherwise, make a map reconnaissance.

STEP 6. Complete the Plan. Complete the plan based on the reconnaissance and anychanges in the situation. Review the plan to ensure it meets the commander’s intent andrequirements of the mission.


Leader Book


STEP 7. Issue the Complete Order. Platoon and smaller unit leaders normally issueoral operations orders. See page 162 for the Operations Order format.

(1) To aid soldiers in understanding the concept for the mission, try to issue theorder within sight of the objective or on the defensive terrain. When this is notpossible, use a terrain model or sketch.(2) Ensure that your soldiers understand the mission, the commander's intent, theconcept of the operation and their assigned tasks. You might require soldiers torepeat all or part of the order or demonstrate on the model or sketch theirunderstanding of the operation.

STEP 8. Supervise. Supervise preparation for combat by conducting rehearsals andinspections.

(1) Rehearsals. Use rehearsals to practice essential tasks, reveal weaknesses orproblems in the plan and improve soldier understanding of the concept of theoperation.

• Rehearsals should include subordinate leaders briefing theirplanned actions in sequence.

• Conduct rehearsals on terrain that resembles the actual ground andin similar light conditions.

(2) Inspections. Conduct pre-combat checks and inspections. Inspect—• Weapons, ammunition, uniforms and equipment.• Mission-essential equipment.• Soldier's understanding of the mission and their specific

responsibilities.• Communications.• Rations and water.• Camouflage.• Deficiencies noted during earlier inspections.


FM 7-22.7


The Five Paragraph Operations Order (OPORD)

An OPORD gives the subordinate leaders the essential information needed tocarry out an operation. OPORDs use a five-paragraph format to organizethoughts and ensure completeness. They also help subordinate leadersunderstand and follow the order. Use a terrain model or sketch along with amap to explain the order.

TASK ORGANIZATION:(The company or battalion task organization for the mission is stated at the start of theOPORD so that the subordinates know what assets they will have during the operation.)

1. SITUATION.a. Enemy Situation.

(1) Composition, disposition, and strength.(2) Recent activities.(3) Capabilities.(4) The enemy's most probable COA. A sketch or enemy overlay is normallyincluded to clarify this description.

b. Friendly Situation.(1) Mission and concept for the battalion.(2) Mission for the unit on the left.(3) Mission for the unit on the right.(4) Mission for the unit to the front.(5) Mission for the unit to the rear or following.(6) Mission for the battalion reserve.(7) Mission for any units supporting the battalion if they impact on the mission.

c. Attachments and Detachments. Changes to the task organization during theoperation. For example, if the task organization changes during the consolidation phaseof an attack, it would be indicated here.

2. MISSION.The mission essential task(s) and purpose(s). It normally includes Who, What, When,Where, and Why. The where is described in terms of terrain features/grid coordinates.If objective names are used, they are secondary references and placed in parentheses.

3. EXECUTION.a. Concept of the Operation. This paragraph describes how the leader intends toaccomplish his mission. At company level, a maneuver and fires subparagraph willalways be included. The operation overlay/concept sketch is referenced here.

(1) Maneuver. The maneuver paragraph should be focused on the decisive action.At company level, a maneuver paragraph that outlines the missions to eachplatoon and or section and identifies the main effort normally, requires noadditional clarification. If it should, the leader may clarify it in the concept of theoperation paragraph (paragraph 3a).(2) Fires. This paragraph describes how the leader intends for the fires to supportthe maneuver. It normally states the purpose to be achieved by the fires, the


Leader Book


priority of fires, and the allocation of any priority targets. A target list, firesexecution matrix, or target overlay may be referenced here.(3) Engineering. Often, especially in defensive operations, this paragraph isrequired to clarify the concept for preparing fortifications. When engineers supportthe mortar platoon or section, the leader states his guidance for employing theseassets here. He may do this by stating his priority for the engineer effort(survivability, countermobility, and mobility) and the priority for supporting thesections.

b. Tasks to Sections or Squads. This paragraph lists each of the section'stasks/limitations. Each subordinate unit will have a separate paragraph.c. Coordinating Instructions. These are the tasks and limitations that apply to two ormore subordinate units. If they do not apply to all the subordinate units, then those unitsthat must comply are clearly stated.

4. SERVICE SUPPORT.This paragraph provides the critical logistical information required to sustain the unitduring the operation.a. General. It provides current and future trains locations.b. Materiel and Services. It may have a separate subparagraph for each class ofsupply, as required.c. Casualty Evacuation.d. Miscellaneous.

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.a. Command. This paragraph states where the C2 facilities and key personnel will belocated during the operation and adjustments to the unit SOP, such as a change to thesuccession of command or the standard wire plan.b. Signal. It provides critical communication requirements such as radio listeningsilence in effect forward of the LD, signals for specific events or actions,emergency/visual signals for critical actions, and SOI information.

ACKNOWLEDGE. Use the message reference number.

ANNEXESA-Intelligence/Intelligence Overlay(s).B-Operation Overlay/Concept Sketches.C-As required, such as road march, truck/boat movement, air assault, and rivercrossing.


FM 7-22.7


Risk Management Matrix

HAZARD PROBABILITY (The likelihood that an event will occur).

Frequent -- The event occurs often in a soldier’s career or iscontinuously experienced by all soldiers exposed.

Likely – There is a good possibility that an event will occur severaltimes in a soldier's career and is experienced a lot by the soldiersexposed.

Occasional -- The event occurs once in a while such as, once in thecareer of a soldier, or sporadically to all soldiers exposed.

Seldom – There is a remote possibility that an event will occur in thecareer of a soldier. For a fleet or inventory, it would be unlikely but canbe expected and would occur seldom to all soldiers exposed.

Unlikely -- The possibility that an event would occur to in the careerof a soldier is so rare that you can assume that it will not occur. Itwould most likely not occur within the fleet or inventory and very rarelyoccurs to all soldiers exposed.







Frequent Likely Occasional Seldom Unlikely









RiskLevel:E - Extremely HighH - HighM - ModerateL - Low


Leader Book


SEVERITY (The expected consequence of an event in terms of degreeof injury, property damage or other mission-impairing factors).

Catastrophic -- results in death or permanent total disability, asystems loss, or major property damage.

Critical – results in severe injury. That is, permanent partial disabilityor temporary total disability in excess of three months for personnel,and major systems damage or significant property damage.

Marginal -- results in minor injury or lost workday accident forpersonnel. Minor systems or property damage.

Negligible -- first aid or less required. Minor systems impairment.


E (Extremely High) – Loss of ability to accomplish mission. H (High) – Significant degradation of mission capabilities in terms ofrequired mission standard. M (Moderate) – Degradation of mission capabilities in terms ofrequired mission standards. L (Low) – Little or no impact on accomplishment of mission.


FM 7-22.7




Appendix D

Internet Resources

D-1. The Internet is a remarkable conduit to a vast storehouse of knowledge.Through the Internet an NCO can find out how to conduct a developmentalcounseling session, where the housing office is at his next assignment orcommunicate with a Motor Sergeant in the Republic of Korea who developeda better way of issuing replacement parts.

D-2. These websites are in the categories of General, Leadership, Assistance,Personnel, Training, History, News and Unit sites. Site addresses on theInternet often change without warning, but you can link to most of these sitesthrough the Army Homepage, Army Knowledge Online or the SergeantsMajor Academy Homepage.

GENERALArmy Knowledge Online –

* Get your Army-wide email account here.Army Homepage –

* The Army Homepage links to nearly every other official Army site.Army National Guard Homepage – Reserve Homepage – Digital Library —

* The Digital Library has electronic versions of most FMs, TCs and othertraining documents for online viewing or download.

US Army Publishing Agency –* Find ARs, DAPAMs and other Army administrative publications.

Army Values – Vision – Transformation – Locator –

* Find active and reserve soldiers around the world.

LEADERSHIPUS Army Sergeants Major Academy –

* Find information on NCO matters, The NCO Journal Online andinformation on NCO Academies.

The Army Leadership Homepage – Army Counseling Homepage – for Army Leadership –

ASSISTANCEArmy Career and Alumni Program –


FM 7-22.7


Army Emergency Relief – http://www.aerhq.orgEducation – Dental – Bill – –, Welfare and Recreation – –

PERSONNELAssignments – Management – of Veterans Affairs – Records – – Chart – Issues – – Services –

TRAININGNCO Academies – Command Training Program – Maneuver Training Center – Readiness Training Center – Training Center – for Army Lessons Learned –

HISTORYArmy Center for Military History – History Institute – Museum –

NEWSArmy News – Newswatch – Radio and TV – News – http://www.defenselink.milEarly Bird News – http://ebird.dtic.milNCO Journal –


Internet Resources


UNIT SITESUS Army Training and Doctrine Command – Army Forces Command – Army Pacific Command – Army Southern Command – Army, Europe – US Army – Army Forces Central Command – Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) – Army Corps of Engineers – Traffic Management Command – Corps – Corps – Corps – Airborne Corps –


FM 7-22.7




Appendix E

NCO Reading List

E-1. Every leader in the Army can become better at leading soldiers. Readingbooks and articles by and about combat leaders can give good insight intoimproving leadership skills. One should be familiar, too, with the documentsthat our Nation was founded on – the Constitution and the Declaration ofIndependence. Reading about past leaders and knowing our history as a Nationand Army lets you better understand your role as an NCO. It also lets yourealize that many soldiers before you encountered and overcame some of thesame problems you face.

RECOMMENDED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENTREADING LIST FOR NCOSE-2. This list is based on the Chief of Staff of the Army’s list and that of theSergeant Major of the Army. The list may change from time to time. For anup-to-date list, see the Sergeants Major Academy Homepage athttp:\\


Stephen E. Ambrose, Band of Brothers: E Company, 506th Regiment, 101st

Airborne from Normandy to Hitler’s Eagle’s Nest. New York: Simon& Schuster, 1992. (335 pages)

Tom Brokaw, The Greatest Generation. New York: Random House, 1998.(412 pages)

T. R. Fehrenbach, This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness. Washington,DC: Brassey’s Inc. 1994 (483 pages)

Charles E. Heller and William A. Stoft, editors, America’s First Battles: 1776-1965. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1986. (416 pages)

David W. Hogan, Jr., 225 Years of Service, The US Army 1775-2000.Washington, DC: Center for Military History, 2000. (36 pages)

John Keegan, The Face of Battle. New York: Vintage Books, 1977. (354pages)

Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once and Young.New York: Random House. 1992. (412 pages)


FM 7-22.7


Anton Myrer, Once an Eagle. New York: USAWC Foundation Press, 1995.(817 pages)

Michael Shaara, The Killer Angels. New York: Ballantine Books, 1974. (355pages)


Stephen E. Ambrose, Citizen Soldiers. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.(480 pages)

Edward M. Coffman, The War To End All Wars: The American MilitaryExperience in World War I . New York: Oxford University Press,1968. (412 pages)

Samuel P. Huntington, Soldier and the State. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Pressof Harvard University press, 1957. (534 pages)

Gerald F. Linderman, Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in theAmerican Civil War. New York: The Free Press, A Division ofMacmillan, 1987. (357 pages)

Charles B. MacDonald, Company Commander. Springfield, NJ: BurfordBooks, 1999. (278 pages)

S.L.A. Marshall, Men Against Fire: The Problem of Battle Command inFuture War. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000. (224pages)

Alan R. Millett and Peter Maslowski, For the Common Defense, A MilitaryHistory of the United States of America. New York: The Free Press,1984. (621 pages)

Robert H. Scales, Jr., Certain Victory. Washington, DC: Brassey’s Inc., 1998.(448 pages)

Mark A. Stoler, George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the AmericanCentury. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers, 1989. (252 pages)

Tom Willard, Buffalo Soldiers. New York: Forge Press, 1997. (336 pages)


NCO Reading List



Roy E. Appleman, East of Chosin: Entrapment and Breakout in Korea, 1950.College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1987. (399pages)

Graham A. Cosmas, An Army for Empire: The United States Army and theSpanish American War. Shippensburg, PA: White Mane, 1994. (349pages)

Robert A. Doughty, The Evolution of US Army Tactical Doctrine, 1946-1976 .Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute, 1979. (57pages)

Antoine Henri Jomini, Jomini and His Summary of the Art of War. Harrisburg,Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1965. (161 pages)

Charles B. MacDonald and Sidney T. Mathews, Three Battles: Arnaville,Altuzzo and Schmidt. Washington, DC: Center of Military History,1952. (443 pages)

James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era . New York:Oxford University Press, 1988. (904 pages):

Roger H. Nye, The Challenge of Command. Wayne, New Jersey: AveryPublishing Group, 1986. (187 pages)

Dave R. Palmer, Summons of the Trumpet: US-Vietnam in Perspective. SanRafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1978. (277 pages)

Martin Van Creveld, Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton .New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977. (284 pages)

Russell F. Weigley, The American Way of War: A History of United StatesMilitary Strategy and Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,1977. (477 pages)

OTHER BOOKS OF INTEREST TO THE NCOWilliam G. Bainbridge, Top Sergeant: The Life and Times of Sergeant

Major of the Army William G. Bainbridge. New York: BallantineBooks, 1995. (357 pages)

Roy Benavidez, The Three Wars of Roy Benavidez. San Antonio, TX:Corona Publishing Company, 1986. (293 pages)


FM 7-22.7


Stephen Crane, The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the AmericanCivil War. New York: Random House, 1998 (reissue). (308pages)

Arnold G. Fisch, Jr., The Story of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps: TheBackbone of the Army . Washington, DC: Center of Military History,1989. (250 pages)

Ernest F. Fisher, Jr., Guardians of the Republic: A History of theNoncommissioned Officer Corps of the US Army .Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2001 (475 pages)

Mark F. Gillespie et al, The Sergeants Major of the Army . Washington,DC: Center of Military History, 1995. (180 pages) (new editiondue in 2003)

Sun Tzu and Sun Pin, The Complete Art of War. Boulder, CO: WestviewPress, 1996. (304 pages)



Appendix F

NCO Induction Ceremony

F-1. The NCO induction ceremony is a celebration of the newly promotedjoining the ranks of a professional noncommissioned officer corps andemphasizes and builds on the pride we all share as members of such an elitecorps. The ceremony should also serve to honor the memory of those men andwomen of the NCO Corps who have served with pride and distinction.

“A pat on the back applied at the proper moment in the circ*mstances canhave a dramatic influence in developing leader.”

SMA William G. Bainbridge

F-2. Induction ceremonies should in no way be used as an opportunity forhazing, but more as a rite of passage. It allows fellow NCOs of a unit to buildand develop a cohesive bond, support team development and serve as a legacyfor future NCO Induction Ceremonies.

F-3. The importance of recognizing the transition from “just one of the guys orgals” to a noncommissioned officer should be shared among the superiors,peers and soldiers of the newly promoted. The induction ceremony should beheld separate and to serve as an extension of the promotion ceremony. TypicalArmy promotion effective dates occur on the first day of a month and whenpossible, so should the induction ceremony.

SETTING UPF-4. The NCO induction ceremony is typically conducted at the Battalion (orequivalent) level. Though it can be held at higher or lower levels, thisdocument will provide an example for a Battalion NCO induction ceremony.By changing the titles of key NCO leaders to meet your own need, you cantailor this document to your own organization.


F-5. Though the location of the ceremony is not as important as the content,consider the following: As part of the socialization process of newly promotednoncommissioned officers, the induction ceremony should be held in a socialmeeting area, such as NCO, community, or all-ranks club. Alternately, a wellequipped gymnasium, post theater, or for smaller ceremonies, a unit dayroomcould be used. Chapel use is discouraged to avoid perceptions of “ritualistic”or “mystic” overtones that go directly against the intended result.


FM 7-22.7



F-6. As part of the socialization process for new noncommissioned officers,the induction ceremony should be scheduled as a training event on the trainingcalendar. The formal portion should take place during the duty day, prior toretreat. By making it a training event during duty hours, you not only getmaximum participation, but command support (Commanders approve trainingschedules). The optimum time is 1630 to 1700 for the formal portion (theceremony) and 1700-1730 for the informal portion (greetings, congratulationsand socializing).


F-7. As the senior NCO of the command, the battalion command sergeantmajor serves as the host of the NCO induction ceremony. The first sergeantsare the CSM’s assistants and they compose the “Official Party.” If desired, aguest speaker for the ceremony may be included and also is a part of theofficial party. A narrator will serve as the Master of Ceremonies.


F-8. As a wholly noncommissioned officer sponsored event, guests and VIPsshould be limited to current and former US Army NCOs. Certain situationsmay warrant an officer or civilian to attend and will not detract from the natureof the occasion. Typical invited guests could include higher echelon commandsergeants major (brigade, division, regimental, commandant), installation orbase support battalion (BSB) command sergeants major, or even lateral(battalion level) command sergeants major. Additionally, special guestsserving as motivational speakers should be included (though not required) aspart of an induction ceremony.


F-9. Though each ceremony can be as different as the people it recognizes can,a commonality should be shared between them. The following items should beavailable for each:

• A passage of a citation for bravery or valor in the face of difficultydemonstrated by a noncommissioned officer.

• Copies of the NCO Creed, one per inductee.• FM 7-22.7 , The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide, one per inductee.• Sound system, if needed. Requirement based only on the number present and

the “command voice” of the participants.• Programs (including the words to the NCO Creed) if desired.


NCO Induction Ceremony


CEREMONY CONDUCTF-10. Appendix F and the example ceremony it contains provide a commonbasis from which to begin. Tailor it to suit your specific needs. The goal is topresent a professional and memorable NCO induction ceremony.

• PLACES: Official party – Waiting outside the ceremony room.

Narrator – At the sound system/podium.Inductees – Formed in advance at an appropriate location. Each shouldhave a copy (or portion) of the NCO Creed.

(2-minutes before ceremony begins)• NARRATOR: Ladies and Gentlemen, the ceremony will begin in two

minutes. (At the predetermined time)

• NARRATOR: Please rise for the official party.

(Official party arrives, marches to designated location. Stops, then takesappropriate positions)

• NARRATOR: Welcome to (this months) (month name) NCO inductionceremony where we recognize the passing of the group before you (theinductees) into the ranks of the time-honored United States ArmyNoncommissioned Officer Corps. Today’s official party consists of(names). The tradition of commemorating the passing of a soldier to anoncommissioned officer can be traced to the Army of Frederick the Great.Before one could be recognized in the full status of an NCO, he wasrequired to stand four watches, one every four days.At the first watch the private soldiers appeared and claimed a gift of breadand brandy. The company NCOs came to the second watch for beer andtobacco and the First Sergeant reserved his visit for the third watch, whenhe was presented with a glass of wine and a piece of tobacco on a tinplate1. Today, we commemorate this rite of passage as a celebration ofthe newly promoted joining the ranks of a professional noncommissionedofficer corps and emphasize and build on the pride we all share asmembers of such an elite corps. We also serve to honor the memory ofthose men and women of the NCO Corps who have served with pride anddistinction. Today, we remember one of our own, one whose courageshould not go unremembered:

• NARRATOR: (read citation. Include name, unit, etc.)

• NARRATOR: Since the earliest days of our Army, the noncommissionedofficer has been recognized as one who instills discipline and order withina unit. Baron Friedrich von Steuben, the US Army’s first “Drill-Master”listed in his Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of theUnited States, the Blue Book that: “Each Sergeant and Corporal will beanswerable for the squad committed to his care. He must pay particularattention to their conduct in every respect and that they keep themselvesand their arms always clean. In dealing with recruits, they must exercise alltheir patience and while on the march, the noncommissioned officers mustpreserve order and regularity.”


FM 7-22.7


Today, we continue that tradition. (Name), our (guest speaker)(CSM) nowwill share his/her instructions with our newest sergeants and corporals.

• SPEAKER: (motivational speech)

• NARRATOR: The Creed of the Noncommissioned Officer has served as aguiding document for noncommissioned officers since its inception in 1973,though its concepts have been always been a part of our Corps. Eachmajor paragraph begins with three letters: N, C and O. These words haveinspired noncommissioned officers and have served as a compass toguide us down the right paths that we encounter. Today, our newestnoncommissioned officers will affirm their commitment to theprofessionalism of our corps and become a part of the “Backbone” of theArmy.

(Inductees rise)(Have all present read the NCO Creed together.) Note: provide copies inadvance to all present.

• CSM/HOST: Moves to each inductee, issues them a copy of FM 7-22.7,The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide, then shakes their hand andcongratulates them.

• ALL PRESENT: Applause.

• NARRATOR: As we conclude today’s ceremony, we ask you to greet ournewest inductees and join us in welcoming them to the Corps. Please risefor the exit of the official party.

• OFFICIAL PARTY: (Departs. Ceremony ends. Informal portion begins --socializing).

“Some of the old soldiers out there who have perhaps grown a bit cynical and toosophisticated for ceremonies think you have the option to decline a ceremony foryourself.

‘Sir, just give the orders and I’ll sew on my stripes tonight in the privacy of myhome,’ you might say; or ‘Sir, don’t go to the trouble of setting up an ceremony:you can just give me the stripe right here in your office.’

Does that sound familiar? Stop a minute to consider how selfless you aresupposed to be as a leader. A military ceremony is not yours even if you are thesole reason for the ceremony. It belongs to all the soldiers. Don’t miss anyopportunity to stop and recognize well-deserving soldiers, especially theopportunity to reward young soldiers receiving their first awards or advancementsa simple tradition of our Army packed with a powerful stimulus for soldiers.”

CSM Joshua Perry


NCO Induction Ceremony


The History of the NCO Creed

The Creed has existed in different versions for a number of years. Long intotheir careers, sergeants remember reciting the NCO Creed during theirinduction into the NCO Corps. Nearly every NCO’s office or home has a copyhanging on a wall. Some have intricate etchings in metal on a wooden plaque,or printed in fine calligraphy. But a quick glance at any copy of the NCOCreed and you will see no author's name at the bottom. The origin of the NCOCreed is a story of its own.

In 1973, the Army (and the noncommissioned officer corps) was in turmoil. Ofthe post-Vietnam developments in American military policy, the mostinfluential in shaping the Army was the advent of the Modern VolunteerArmy. With the inception of the Noncommissioned Officer Candidate Course,many young sergeants were not the skilled trainers of the past and were onlytrained to perform a specific job; squad leaders in Vietnam. Thenoncommissioned officer system was under development and the army wasrewriting its Field Manual 22-100, Leadership, to set a road map for leaders tofollow.

Of those working on the challenges at hand, one of the only NCO-pureinstructional departments at the U.S Army Infantry School (USAIS) at FortBenning, Georgia, GA was the NCO Subcommittee of the Command andLeadership Committee in the Leadership Department. Besides training soldiersat the Noncommissioned Officers Academy, these NCOs also developedinstructional material and worked as part of the team developing modelleadership programs of instruction.

During one brainstorming session, SFC Earle Brigham recalls writing threeletters on a plain white sheet of paper... N-C-O. From those three letters theybegan to build the NCO Creed. The idea behind developing a creed was togive noncommissioned officers a "yardstick by which to measure themselves."

When it was ultimately approved, the NCO Creed was printed on the insidecover of the special texts issued to students attending the NCO courses at FortBenning, beginning in 1974. Though the NCO Creed was submitted higher forapproval and distribution Army-wide, it was not formalized by an officialarmy publication until 11 years later.

Though it has been rewritten in different ways, the NCO Creed still begins itsparagraphs with those three letters: N-C-O. It continues to guide and reinforcethe values of each new generation of noncommissioned officers.


FM 7-22.7



Source Notes- 1

Source Notes

These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication, listedby page number. Where Material appears in a paragraph, both pageand paragraph number are shown. Boldface indicates vignette titles.

Cover photo of Revolutionary War sergeant of the 3rd New Jersey Regimentcourtesy of Roger W. Smith and Delores A. Smith of the 3rd New JerseyRegiment (re-enactment group affiliated with the Brigade of the AmericanRevolution).

Cover image of Sergeant of Riflemen rank insignia. For more information onearly NCO rank insignia, see William K. Emerson (LTC, US Army),Chevrons, Catalog of U.S. Army Insignia, Smithsonian Institution Press,Washington DC, 1983.

vii Charge to the Noncommissioned Officer. Excerpted from the Department ofthe Army Certificate of Promotion, DA Form 4872, Jan 2000.

xi Medal of Honor Citation. Excerpted from the Medal of Honor Citation forCSM (then SFC) Gary L. Littrell. The South Vietnamese 23rd Ranger Battalion(the unit CSM Littrell was supporting at the time of the action) was in contactwith elements of three North Vietnamese regiments – over 5000 enemy soldiersagainst 430.

Historical Vignettesxii Sergeant Patrick Gass Vignette -- L.R. Arms, Curator, US Army NCO

Museum, “Sergeant Patrick Gass,” May 2002.xiii SGT James Rissler Vignette -- SGT James R. Rissler, Interview, 19 June


Chapter 1 – History and Background1-3 The section, “The History of the American NCO,” is largely from L.R. Arms,

Curator, US Army NCO Museum, “A Short History of the US ArmyNoncommissioned Officer,” 1999.

1-4 Quotation of CSM Cynthia Pritchett, interview, 19 Sep 02.1-5 Sergeant Brown at Redoubt Number 10, Arnold G. Fisch, Jr. and Robert K.

Wright, Jr., The Story of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps, The Backbone ofthe Army. (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1989) (hereafter citedas The Story of the NCO Corps), 216.

1-7 Sergeant William McKinley at Antietam, Story of the NCO Corps, 217.1-8 The 54th Massachusetts Assault on Fort Wagner, Kim A. O’Connell, “The

54th Massachusetts and the Assault on Fort Wagner.” The Menare Foundation,

1-9 Buffalo Soldiers and Sergeant George Jordan, excerpted from the Medal ofHonor Citation for Sergeant George Jordan.

1-9 Corporal Titus in the Boxer Rebellion , Story of the NCO Corps, 218.


FM 7-22.7

Source Notes- 2

1-11 Sergeant Patrick Walsh in World War I, Story of the NCO Corps, 219.1-12 Staff Sergeant Kazuo Otani at Pieve Di St. Luce , excerpted from the Medal

of Honor Citation for Staff Sergeant Kazuo Otani.1-13 Staff Sergeant John Sjogren at San Jose Hacienda , excerpted from the

Medal of Honor Citation for Staff Sergeant John C. Sjogren.1-14 Sergeant Ola Mize at ‘Outpost Harry’, excerpted from the Medal of Honor

Citation for Sergeant Ola L. Mize.1-15 SFC Eugene Ashley at Lang Vei, excerpted from the Medal of Honor Citation

for SFC Eugene Ashley, Jr.1-16 Story of SMA Wooldridge, in CSM Dan Elder, “Office of the Sergeant Major

of the Army ,” NCO Journal Online, Fall, 2001.1-18 MSG Gordon and SFC Shughart at Mogadishu, excerpted from Medal of

Honor Citations for MSG Gary I. Gordon and SFC Randall D. Shughart.1-20 SGT Christine Roberts in Kosovo , from LTG James B. Peake, “Army Medics

Ready for Conflict.” US Medicine, January 2002, 39.1-21 “Large units are likely…” FM 3-0, Operations, June 2001 (hereafter cited as

FM 3-0), 1-17.1-22 Quotation of SMA Jack L. Tilley, Twelfth Sergeant Major of the Army, in SSG

Donald Sparks, “Interview: A Talk With Sergeant Major of the Army JackTilley,” NCO Journal, Winter 2001, 15.

1-22 Quotation of GEN John N. Abrams in SPC Michael Scott, "Force ProtectionKey to Army XXI Plan," Army News Service, June 23, 1998.

1-23 Quotation from S.L.A. Marshall, Men Against Fire: The Problem of BattleCommand in Future War, (Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith, 1978),200.

1-23 Quotation from GEN John A. Wickham, Jr., Collected Works of the ThirtiethChief of Staff of the United States Army, (Washington, DC: US Army Center forMilitary History, 1996), 23.

1-23 Quotation of GEN Bruce Clarke, DA PAM 600-65, “Leadership Statements andQuotes,” 1985, 5.

1-24 Quotation of GA Omar N. Bradley, in Military Review, May 1948, 62.1-24 Quotation of LTG Thomas J. Jackson, in Robert Debs Heinl, Dictionary of

Military and Naval Quotations (Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press,1988), 151.

1-24 Quotation from GEN J. Lawton Collins, Lightning Joe: An Autobiography,(Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1979), 444.

1-25 Quotation from SMA William Connelly, Sixth Sergeant Major of the Army,“NCOs: Its Time to Get Tough,” ARMY Magazine (October 1981), 31.

1-25 1-58. “…compels the soldier to fight through…” Proposed definition of thewarrior ethos, “The Army Training and Leader Development Panel (NCO),Final Report,” 2 April 2002, para 76 (hereafter cited as ATLDP NCO Report).

1-25 Corporal Rodolfo Hernandez on Hill 420, excerpt from the Medal of HonorCitation for CPL Rodolfo P. Hernandez.

1-26 “Noncommissioned officers, properly…” Report of the Secretary of War, 1888,142.

1-26 Figure 1-1. Structured Self-development Program Briefing, 14 Dec 01.


Source Notes

Source Notes- 3

1-27 Quotation of Col. Kenneth Simpson and CSM Oren Bevins, Commandant andCSM, USASMA, Oct 1989.

1-28 Quotation of MSG Henry Caro, Excellence in Leadership Awardee, SMC ClassNo. 2, 1974.

1-29 “You must learn more…” The Noncom’s Guide, (Harrisburg, PA: StackpoleBooks, 1948), 16. This was the predecessor to The NCO Guide, 7th Edition, bythe same publisher.

1-29 CSM George D. Mock and SFC John K. D’Amato, “Building the Force: ‘Skill,Will and Teamwork.’” NCO Journal, Summer 1991, 18.

Chapter 2 – Duties, Responsibilities and Authority of the NCO2-3 2-4. TC 22-6, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide, November 1990

(hereafter cited as TC 22-6), 5.2-4 2-6. FM 22-600-20, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide, March 1980

(hereafter cited as FM 22-600-20, 1980), 24.2-4 Quotation from Drill Sergeant Karl Baccene, “It’s Tough to Be the First

Domino,” ARMY, FEB 1971, 41.2-5 Quotation from SMA Leon L. Van Autreve, Fourth Sergeant Major of the

Army, in “The Army’s SMAs from the Beginning to the Present.” NCOJournal, Summer 1994, pp. 10-11.

2-5 2-9. FM 6-22 (FM 22-100), Leadership, August 1999 (hereafter cited as FM 6-22), 2-23.

2-5 2-11, 2-12. DA Pamphlet 600-25, “NCO Development Program,” April 1987(hereafter cited as DA PAM 600-25, 1987), 12.

2-6 “Rank is a badge…” DA Pam 360-1, “Know Your Army,” 1957 (hereafter citedas DA PAM 360-1, 1957), 6.

2-7 Quotation from SMA Richard A. Kidd, Ninth Sergeant Major of the Army, in“The Army’s SMAs from the Beginning to the Present,” NCO Journal, Summer1994, 13.

2-7 2-22. AR 600-100, “Army Leadership,” 17 September 1993, 1.2-7 Quotation from SMA Glen E. Morrell, Seventh Sergeant Major of the Army,

"What Soldiering is All About," ARMY, Oct 1986, 41.2-7 2-23. AR 600-20, “Army Command Policy,” 13 May 2002 (hereafter cited as

AR 600-20), 12.2-8 “As a leader…” FM 22-100, Army Leadership (1983) (hereafter cited as FM 22-

100, 1983), 89.2-8 2-26. AR 600-20, 16.2-8 Quotation of CSM Clifford R. West, CSM, US Army Sergeants Major

Academy, 10 June 2002.2-9 2-30. MCM, 2002, II-18.2-11 2-34. FM 22-5, Drill and Ceremonies, December 1986, 7-15.2-11 2-34. AR 1-201, “Army Inspection Policy,” 17 May 1993, pp. 2-3.2-13 “Correct errors in the use…” FM 22-10, Leadership (1951), 28.2-16 2-46. FM 22-600-20, The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide, November

1986 (hereafter cited as FM 22-600-20, 1986), 46.


FM 7-22.7

Source Notes- 4

2-16 2-47. FM 22-600-20, 1980, 44.2-17 2-52. AR 600-20, 12.2-17 2-53. FM 22-600-20, 1980, pp. 17-18.2-18 2-54. FM 22-600-20, 1986, 23.2-18 2-55. AR 600-20, 12.2-19 Quotation of CSM J. F. La Voie, in Ernest F. Fisher, Jr., Guardians of the

Republic (New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1994), 395.2-19 2-59. DA PAM 600-25, 1987, 12.2-21 2-62, 2-65. DA PAM 600-25, 1987, 13.2-22 Quotation from SMA Jack L. Tilley, Twelfth Sergeant Major of the Army,

“Thoughts and Concerns,” Sergeant Major of the Army Website,

2-22 2-69. DA PAM 600-25, 1987, 23.2-23 2-70. FM 22-600-20, 1986, 3.

Chapter 3 – Leadership

3-2 Figure 3-1. FM 6-22, 1-3.3-2 “Leadership is influencing…” FM 6-22, 1-4.3-3 Quotation from SMA Robert E. Hall, Eleventh Sergeant Major of the Army, in

"Keep the faith….” The NCO Journal, Winter 97-98, 12.3-3 Quotation of GA Omar N. Bradley, quoted by SMA Glen E. Morrell, Seventh

Sergeant Major of the Army, "NCOs Are the ‘Vital Link in the Chain ofCommand.’" ARMY, Oct 1985, 65.

3-4 Quotation from MSG Frank K. Nicolas, “Noncommissioned Officer,” Infantry,JAN 1958, 70.

3-4 Quotation from ADM James Stockdale, in address to the Graduating Class of1979 at The Citadel, Charleston, SC; DA PAM 600-65, “Leadership Statementsand Quotes,” Nov 1985, 28.

3-5 Quotation from GEN John N. Abrams, "Developing Soldiers Now and into theFuture" AUSA Green Book 2001-2002, 85.

3-5 3-9. FM 6-22, 1-6.3-5 Quotation from GEN Matthew B. Ridgway, "Leadership," in Military

Leadership: In Pursuit of Excellence, edited by Robert L. Taylor and WilliamE. Rosenbach (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Inc., 1984), 27.

3-6 Quotation from GEN Eric K. Shinseki, Chief of Staff of the Army, in an addressto 25th Annual George C. Marshall ROTC Awards Seminar, Lee Chapel,Washington & Lee University, 19 April 2002.

3-6 3-14. FM 6-22, 4-13.3-7 Quotation from LTG Harold G. Moore, US Army (retired), “Battlefield

Leadership,” 3-17. FM 1, The Army, 14 June 2001 (hereafter cited as FM 1), 1-1.3-7 3-18. FM 1, 3-1.3-8 Quotation from CSM Mary E. Sutherland, interview, 16 Sep 02.


Source Notes

Source Notes- 5

3-8 Quotation from MSG (Ret) Roy Benavidez, “MSG (Ret) Roy Benavidez: AReal American Hero.” NCO Journal, Spring 1996, 11

3-10 3-24. FM 6-22, 1-7.3-10 Quotation from CSM Clifford West, CSM, US Army Sergeants Major

Academy, 10 June 2002.3-11 3-26. Proposed definition of mentoring, ATLDP NCO Report, para 110.3-11 Quotation from CSM Anthony Williams, in Phil Tegtmeier, “Staying Power,”

The NCO Journal, Winter 2002, 15.3-11 3-28. FM 6-22, 5-16.3-12 3-31. FM 6-22, 5-19.3-12 Quotation of SMA George W. Dunaway, Second Sergeant Major of the Army,

Center of Military History Interview, 1990, 60.3-12 3-32. FM 6-22, 5-20.3-13 Figure 3-2. FM 6-22, 5-21.3-14 NCO Recognition. TRADOC Regulation 600-14, “Sergeant Audie Murphy

Club (SAMC) Program,” 1 February 1999, 12.3-14 3-33. FM 1, 3-1.3-14 Quotation of LTG McNair by GEN Eisenhower, DA PAM 600-65, 7.3-14 “The discipline on which…” The Old Sergeant’s Conferences, 1930, 64.3-15 “Men like to serve…” TGGS Special Text No. 1, Leadership for the Company

Officer, (1949), 144.3-15 3-36. AR 600-20, 15.3-15 C Company, 3-504th PIR at Renacer Prison, Center for Army Lessons

Learned, Combat Training Center Bulletin, September 1990, 4-1.3-16 Quotation from GEN George S. Patton, Sr., “3rd US Army Letter of Instruction

No. 2,” 3 April 1944.3-16 The Deployment, Center for Army Lessons Learned, Newsletter, Sep 1993, 2.3-17 3-42. FM 6-22, 3-18.3-17 Quotation from LTG William M. Steele, “Training and Developing Army

Leaders,” Military Review, July-August 2001.3-17 3-43. FM 6-22, 1-9.3-18 Quotation from SMA Julius Gates, Eighth Sergeant Major of the Army, "NCOs:

Maintain the Momentum." Field Artillery, Dec 1987, 46.

Chapter 4 – Training4-1 “Noncommissioned officers train soldiers…” FM 25-101, Battle Focused

Training, Sep 1990 (hereafter cited as FM 25-101), 3-1.4-3 Quotation from CSM A. Frank Lever, III, interview, 30 Sep 02.4-4 Quotation from SGT Michael Davis, "Sergeants on Training." Sergeants’

Business, Jul-Aug 1988, 13.4-6 Figure 4-1. FM 25-101, 3.4-6 Corporal Sandy Jones in World War I, in Laurence Stallings, The

Doughboys: The Story of the AEF (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1963), 318.


FM 7-22.7

Source Notes- 6

4-7 Quotation from CSM Bobby Butler, "Iron Time Training." Army Trainer , Fall1989, 9.

4-9 Quotation from SSG Ray H. Duncan, “The Value of Military Training.” USArmy Recruiting News, 1 March 1925, 12.

4-10 The 555th Parachute Infantry – ‘Triple Nickles,’ in Bradley Biggs, The TripleNickles, Archon Books, an imprint of The Shoe String Press, Inc. Hamden,Connecticut, 1986.

4-11 Quotation from SMA William O. Wooldridge, First Sergeant Major of theArmy, "So You’re Headed for Combat." Army Digest, Jan 1968, pp. 6-11.

4-11 Quotation of SFC Lydia Mead, The NCO Journal, Spring 1993, 6.4-12 Quotation from MSG Jose R. Carmona, "Only a Trained Instructor Can Teach."

ARMY, Jan 1968, 74.4-12 Quotation of CSM Mary E. Sutherland, interview, 16 Sep 02.4-13 “Carefully planned, purposeful and effective training…” DA Pam 22-1,

Leadership (1948), 33.4-15 SSG Michael Duda in Desert Storm, in Center for Army Lessons Learned,

“Vignette: Operation Desert Storm: Actions on Day G + 3,” CALL Newsletter92-4, October 1992.

4-16 Quotation from SSG Rico Johnston, "Battle Drills." Army Trainer , Fall 1981,14.

4-17 4-47. AAR Steps from TC 25-20, A Leader’s Guide to After-Action Reviews, 30Sep 93, 4.

4-17 “AARs are one of the best…” Center for Army Lessons Learned, NCO LessonsLearned, Oct 1989, 11.

4-18 4-51. Platoon Training Meeting Agenda from TC 25-30, A Leader’s Guide toCompany Training Meetings, 27 Apr 94, (hereafter cited as TC 25-30), 12.

Chapter 5 – Counseling and Mentorship5-3 5-3. Requirement for counseling in AR 600-20, 6.5-4 Quotation from CSM Anthony Williams, in Phil Tegtmeier, “Staying Power,”

The NCO Journal, Winter 2002, 15.5-4 Figure 5-1. FM 6-22, C-2.5-5 Quotation from CSM Daniel E. Wright, "Tips for Leaders." Field Artillery, Jun

1995, 3.5-6 Quotation from COL David Reaney, Command, Leadership and Effective Staff

Support, 1996, 159.5-6 Figure 5-2. FM 6-22, C-17.5-7 Quotation from SGM Randolph Hollinsworth, in The NCO Corps on

Leadership, the Army and America: Quotes for Winners, 2nd Ed. (WashingtonDC: The Information Management Support Center, January 1998), 18.

5-10 “[Helping] soldiers cope with…” FM 22-600-20, 1980, pp. 33, 35.5-11 “Performance counseling informs…” DA Pam 623-205, “The NCO Evaluation

Reporting System ‘In Brief,’" 1988, 6.5-12 5-28. AR 623-205, “Noncommissioned Officer Evaluation Reporting System,”

15 May 2002, 3.


Source Notes

Source Notes- 7

5-16 Quotation from CSM A. Frank Lever, III, interview, 30 Sep 02.5-16 “To be an effective mentor…” DA Pam 600-25, 18.5-16 “One of the most important…” CSM Larry W. Gammon, “The Mentor and

Mentoring.” Quartermaster Professional Bulletin, Spring 2001.5-17 Figure 5-4. DA PAM 600-XX (Draft), “Army Mentorship,” undated.5-17 Quotation of CSM Cynthia A. Pritchett, in Patrick A. Swan, “’Knowledge

Warriors’ amass at Symposium.” ArmyLink News, 4 April, 2002.5-18 Figure 5-5. CSM Christine E. Seitzinger, “NCO Mentorship.” The NCO Journal

Online, Fall 1997.5-18 Quotation from SMA William G. Bainbridge, Fifth Sergeant Major of the Army

Top Sergeant: The Life and Times of Sergeant Major of the Army William G.Bainbridge, (New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1995), 346.

5-19 Quotation from CSM Christine E. Seitzinger, “NCO Mentorship.” The NCOJournal Online, Fall 1997.

Appendix A – Sergeant’s Time TrainingA-1 Quotation from GEN Eric K. Shinseki, in SSG Tami Lambert, “GEN Shinseki

promoted to NCO,” PAO, HQUSAREUR, US Army Europe News Release,October 2000.

Appendix B – Army ProgramsB-2 Quotation from SMA Silas L. Copeland, Third Sergeant Major of the Army,

“Let’s Build a Better Army,” Soldier, Jul 1971, 5.B-6 Quotation from MSG Douglas E. Freed, “Learning to Lead,” Army Trainer , Fall

1987, 30.

Appendix C – Leader BookC-1 C-4. Organization of the leader book from TC 25-30, B-3.

Appendix F – NCO Induction CeremonyF-1 F-1. The ceremony outline shown here developed by CSM Dan Elder by

melding many Army units’ versions, Quotation form SMA William G. Bainbridge, Fifth Sergeant Major of the

Army, “First and Getting Firster,” Army, Oct 1975, 24.F-4 Quotation from CSM Joshua Perry, “Regimental Command Sergeant Major,”

Military Police, Dec 1990, 5.

F-5 History of the NCO Creed from CSM Dan Elder and CSM FelixSanchez, “The History of the NCO Creed,” NCO Journal, Summer1998.


FM 7-22.7

Source Notes- 8




The glossary list acronyms and abbreviations used in this manual.AR 310-50 lists authorized abbreviations and brevity codes.

1SG First SergeantAAR After-Action ReviewAC Active ComponentACES Army Continuing Education SystemACAP Army Career and Alumni ProgramACCP Army Correspondence Course ProgramACS Army Community ServiceACT American College TestADM AdmiralAER Army Emergency ReliefAFAP Army Family Action PlanAFTB Army Family Team BuildingAKO Army Knowledge OnlineAPFT Army Physical Fitness ProgramANCOC Advance Noncommissioned Officers CourseAR Army RegulationARNG Army National GuardARTEP Army Training Evaluation ProgramARTEP MTP Army Training Evaluation Program Mission Training PlanASAP Army Substance Abuse ProgramAT Annual TrainingATLS Advanced Trauma Life SupportATRRS Army Training and Requirements Resource SystemAWOL absent without leaveBARS BNCOC Automated Reservation SystemBNCOC Basic Noncommissioned Officers CourseBOSS Better Opportunities for Single SoldiersBSB Base Support BattalionBSC Battle Staff CourseCA Combat ArmsCAFAP Consumer Affairs and Financial Assistance ProgramCLEP College Level Examination ProgramCMF Career Management FieldCOL ColonelCPL CorporalCQ Charge of QuartersCS Combat SupportCSM Command Sergeant MajorCSMC Command Sergeant Major CourseCSS Combat Service SupportCTT Common Task TestingCW2 Chief Warrant Officer 2DA Department of the ArmyDANTES Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Education SupportDA PAM Department of the Army Pamphlet


FM 7-22.7


D-Day Execution Date of Any Military OperationDOD Department of DefenseDOR Date of RankDWI Driving while intoxicatedEEO Equal Employment OpportunityEFMP Exceptional Family Member ProgramEO Equal OpportunityEPMS Enlisted Personnel Management SystemFAP Family Advocacy ProgramFM Field ManualFMEAP Family Member Employment Assistance ProgramFRAGO Fragmentary OrderFRG Family Readiness GroupFSC First Sergeant CourseFTX Field Training ExerciseGEN GeneralHMMWV High Mobility Medium Wheeled VehicleIAW In Accordance WithID IdentificationLDP Leader Development ProgramLTG Lieutenant GeneralLZ Landing ZoneMACOM Major Army CommandMCM Manual for Courts MartialMEDEVAC Medical EvacuationMETL Mission Essential Task ListMETT-TC Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, Time and Civilian

ConsiderationsMILES Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement SystemMKT Mobile Kitchen TrailerMOS Military Occupational SpecialtyMSG Master SergeantMTP Mission Training PlanMWR Moral, Welfare, and RecreationNATO North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNBC Nuclear Biological ChemicalNCO Noncommissioned OfficerNCOA Noncommissioned Officer AcademyNCODP Noncommissioned Officer Development ProgramNCOER Noncommissioned Officer Evaluation ReportNCOERS Noncommissioned Officer Evaluation Reporting SystemNCOES Noncommissioned Officer Education SystemNCOIC Noncommissioned Officer In-ChargeNCOPD Noncommissioned Officer Professional DevelopmentNMC Nonmission CapableOC Observer ControllerOco*kA Observation, Concealment, Obstacles, Key terrain, Avenues of

approachODCSOPS Office of the Deputy Chief of OperationsODSCPER Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff Personnel




OOTW Operations Other Than WarOPFOR Opposing ForcesOPORD Operation Order“P” Needs Practice(P) PromotablePCC Pre-combat ChecksPCI Pre-combat InspectionsPDF Panamanian Defense ForcePDM Professional Development ModelPERSCOM Personnel CommandPFC Private First ClassPIR Parachute Infantry RegimentPLDC Primary Leadership Development CoursePLT PlatoonPMCS Preventive Maintenance Checks and ServicesPMOS Primary Military Occupational SpecialtyPOV Privately Owned VehiclePSG Platoon SergeantPZ Pickup ZoneQOL Quality of LifeRAP Relocation Assistance ProgramRC Reserve ComponentRet. RetiredSAT Scholastic Assessment TestSATS Standard Army Training SystemSFC Sergeant First ClassSGM Sergeant MajorSGT SergeantSMA Sergeant Major of the ArmySMC Sergeants Major CourseSOP Standing Operating ProcedureSPC SpecialistSSG Staff SergeantSTP Soldier Training PublicationSTT Sergeants Time Training“T” TrainedTA Tuition AssistanceTABE Test of Adult Basic EducationTADSS Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and SimulationsTAO Transition Assistance OfficeTAPES Total Army Performance Evaluation SystemTIG Time in GradeTIS Time in ServiceTOW Tube Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire-Guided MissileTM Technical ManualTRADOC US Army Training and Doctrine CommandTTP Tactics, Techniques, and ProceduresT&EO Training and Evaluation Outline“U” UntrainedUCMJ Uniform Code of Military Justice


FM 7-22.7


UN United NationsUS United StatesUSAR United States Army ReserveUSASMC United States Army Sergeants Major CourseUSC United States CodeVIP Very Important PersonWARNORD Warning OrderWO1 Warrant Officer 1WWI World War 1WWII World War 2




The bibliography lists field manuals by new number followed by oldnumber. These publications are sources for additional information onthe topics in this Field Manual.

JOINT PUBLICATIONSMost joint publications are available online at

Joint Doctrine Encyclopedia . 16 Jul.1997.

ARMY PUBLICATIONSMost Army doctrinal publications are available online at the Reimer DigitalLibrary (


AR 27-10. Military Justice. 20 Aug 1999.AR 310-25. Dictionary of United States Army Terms. 21 May 1986.AR 600-20. Army Command Policy. 15 Jul 1999.AR 600-100. Army Leadership. 17 Sep 1993.AR 635-200. Enlisted Personnel. 26 Jan 1996.AR 690-600. Equal Employment Opportunity Discrimination Complaints. 18

Sep 1989.AR 690-950. Career Management. 18 Aug 1988.


DA Pam 10-1. Organization of the US Army . 14 Jun 1994.DA Pam 350-58. Leader Development of America’s Army . 13 Oct 1994.DA Pam 350-59. Army Correspondence Course Program Catalog . 1 Oct 2000.DA Pam 600-25. US Army Noncommissioned Officer Professional Development

Guide. 30 Apr 1987.DA Pam 623-205. The Noncommissioned Officer Evaluation Reporting System. 29

Jun 1988.DA Pam 690-400. Total Army Performance Evaluation System (TAPES). 1 Jun



FM 1 (100-1). The Army . 14 Jun 1994.FM 1-04.10 (27-10). The Law of Land Warfare. 15 Jul 1976.FM 2-22.4 (34-54). Counterintelligence. 30 Jan 1998.FM 3-0 (100-5). Operations. 14 Jun 2001.FM 3-05.30 (33-1). Psychological Operations. 19 Jun 2000.FM 3-05.40 (41-10). Civil Affairs Operations. 14 Feb 2000.


FM 7-22.7


FM 3-05.70 (21-31). Survival. 5 Jan 1992.FM 3-07.2 (100-35). Force Protection. TBP.FM 3-07.3 (100-23). Peace Operations. 30 Dec 1994.FM 3-07.7 (100-19). Domestic Support Operations. 1 Jul 1993.FM 3-11.19 (3-19). NBC Reconnaissance. 19 Nov 1993.FM 3-11.4 (3-4). NBC Protection. 21 Feb 1996.FM 3-11.5 (3-5). NBC Decontamination. 17 Nov 1993.FM 3-11.7 (3-7). NBC Field Handbook . 29 Sep 1994.FM 3-19.30 (19-30). Physical Security. 8 Jan 2001.FM 3-2 (21-20). Physical Fitness Training . 1 Oct 1998.FM 3-21.18 (21-18). Foot Marches. 1 Jun 1990.FM 3-21.5 (22-5). Drill and Ceremonies. 8 Dec 1986.FM 3-21.6 (22-6). Guard Duty. 15 Jan 1975.FM 3-21.75 (21-75). Combat Skills of the Soldier. 3 Aug 1984.FM 3-25.26 (21-26). Map Reading and Land Navigation. 20 Jul 2001.FM 3-34.1 (5-102). Countermobility. 14 Mar 1985.FM 3-34.112 (5-103). Survivability. 10 Jun 1985.FM 3-34.330 (5-33). Terrain Analysis. 8 Sep 1992.FM 3-35 (100-17). Mobilization, Deployment, Redeployment and

Demobilization . 28 Oct 1992.FM 3-35.5 (100-17-5). Redeployment. 29 Sep 1999.FM 3-97.11 (90-11). Cold Weather Operations. 12 Apr 1968.FM 3-100.14 (100-14). Risk Management. 23 Apr 1998.FM 4-0 (100-10). Combat Service Support . 3 Oct 1995.FM 4-01.30 (55-10). Movement Control. 9 Feb 1999.FM 4-02.51 (8-51). Combat Stress Control in Theater Operations. 29 Sep

1994.FM 4-25.10 (21-10). Field Hygiene and Sanitation . 21 Jun 2000.FM 4-25.11 (21-11). First Aid for Soldiers. 27 Oct 1988.FM 4-25.12 (21-10-1). Unit Field Sanitation Team. 25 Jan 2002.FM 4-100.9 (100-9). Reconstitution. 13 Jan 1992.FM 5-0 (101-5). Staff Organization and Operations. 31 May 1997.FM 6-22 (22-100). Army Leadership. 31 Aug 1999.FM 6-22.5 (22-9). Combat Stress. 23 Jun 2000.FM 7-0. Training the Force. 21 Oct 2002.FM 7-1 (25-101). Battle Focus Training. 30 Sep 1990.FM 7-15. Army Universal Task List (AUTL). TBP.FM 22-9. Soldier’s Performance in Continuous Operations. 12 Dec 1991.FM 22-51. Leader’s Manual for Combat Stress Control. 29 Sep 1994.FM 27-14. Legal Guide for Soldiers. 16 Apr 1991.FM 101-5-1. Operational Terms and Graphics. 30 Sep 1997.





STP 21-1 SMCT. Soldiers Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1 . Oct 2002.STP 21-24-SMCT. Soldiers Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Levels 2-4. Oct



TC 21-3. Soldier’s Handbook for Individual Operations and Survival in Cold-Weather Areas. 17 Mar 1986.

TC 21-7. Personal Financial Readiness and Deployment Handbook . 17 Nov1997.

TC 25-10. A Leader’s Guide to Lane Training. 26 Aug 1996.TC 25-20. A Leader’s Guide to After-Action Reviews. 30 Sep 1993.TC 25-30. A Leader’s Guide to Company Training Meetings. 27 Apr 1994.TC 90-1. Training in Urban Operations. 1 Apr 2002.


TRADOC Reg 350-10. Institutional Leader Educational Training . 12 Aug2002.

TRADOC Reg 350-18. The Army School System (TASS). 28 May 2000.TRADOC Pam 525-5. Force XXI Operations. 1 Aug 1994.TRADOC Pam 525-100-4. Leadership and Command on the Battlefield,

Noncommissioned Officer Corps. 28 Feb 1994.

MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONSMCM. Manual for Courts Martial United States. 2002.


FM 7-22.7





Entries are by paragraph numbers unless page is specified

54th Massachusetts Regiment, page 1-8555th Parachute Infantry, page 4-12

AAAR, 4-46

Four Parts, 4-47Abrams, GEN John N., pages 1-22, 3-5Abstract of Infantry Tactics, 1-9Afghanistan, 1-41, pages, 1-3, 1-21Al Qaeda, 1-41Alcohol and Drug Control Officer, B-5Adjutant, 1-10American College Test (ACT), 1-71fAmerican Revolution, 1-3- 1-6ANCOC, 1-63Army Birthday, page 1-1Army Counseling Program, 5-8

Effective 5-8Four Elements, 5-8Characteristics of EffectiveCounseling, 5-7 (fig 5-1)Assess the Plan of Action, 5-10

Army Career and Alumni Program,(ACAP) B-2

Army Community Service (ACS), B-15Army Continuing Education system

(ACES), 1-71, B-4Army Correspondence Course Program

(ACCP), 1-71jArmy Emergency Relief (AER), B-8Army Knowledge Online (AKO), 1-71b,Army Leadership, 3-4Army Leadership Framework, 3-43 (fig

3-1)Army Programs, B-1

Transition Assistance, B-2Equal Opportunity/EqualEmployment Opportunity(EO/EEO), B-3Education, B-4Army Substance Abuse Program(ASAP), B-5--B-7Army Emergency Relief (AER),B-8

Army Regulation (AR) 600-20, B-3Army Regulation (AR) 600-85, B-8Army Regulation (AR), 690-600, B-4Army Training and Education Program,

1-59 (fig 1-1)Army Transformation, 1-48Army Values, 1-50 -- 1-58Army Women, 1-28Ashley, SFC Eugene, page 1-15Assessments, 4-42

Leader, 4-42Unit, 4-43Tools, 4-45

Leader Book, 4-45Battle Rosters, 4-45

Army Training Requirement andResources System (ATRRS), 1-71a

Authority, 2-19-- 2-21Types, 2-21Command 2-22- 2-23General Military, 2-24-- 2-26Delegation of Authority,2-27-- 2-31Types of Sources, 2-27-- 2-29

BBadge of Military Merit, 1-7Backbone of the Army, 2-46, F-10Bainbridge, SMA William G., page 5-18Balkans, The, 1-40Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course

(BNCOC), 1-61Battle Drills, 4-40

Characteristics of, 4-40Battle Focus Training, 4-4Battle Staff Course (BSC), 1-34Be, Know, Do, 3-6-- 3-32

Be, 3-7-- 3-9Know, 3-10-- 3-19Do 3-20-- 3-32

Benavidez, MSG (USA Ret) Roy(MOH), page 3-8

Better Opportunities for Single Soldiers(BOSS), B-14


FM 7-22.7


Blue Book, 1-3BNCOC Automated Reservation System

(BARS), 1-62Bradley, General of the Army Omar N.,

page 1-24, 3-33Brown, Sergeant William, page 1-5Buffalo Soldier, page 1-9

Sergeant George Jordan, page 1-9

CC Co. 3-504th PIR, page 3-16Camp Bondsteel, page 1-7Career Management Field (CMF), 1-71fCarney, Sergeant William H., page 1-8Center for Army Lessons Learned

(CALL), page 4-17Chain of Command, 2-20, 2-28, 2-35,

2-39, 2-48, 2-50, 2-53, 4-7, 4-19,4-35, 5-15, 5-21, pages 3-7, 3-9,3-10

Character, 3-6-- 3-7Chevrons, 1-21Chief of Staff Intent, STT, A-1Civil War, 1-11

Post Civil War Era 1-14Colors and Color Guards,

pages 2-20-- 2-21CSM Responsibility,

pages 2-20-- 2-21Color Sergeant, pages 2-20-- 2-21

Commander’s Assessment, 4-42Command Sergeant Major and Sergeant

Major, 2-59-- 2-61Command Authority, 2-22Command Responsibility, 2-16Command Sergeants Major Course

(CSMC), 1-34Commissioned Officers Duties, 2-42

(fig 2-5)Common Task Test Proficiency, C-7Congress, 1-19, 2-20, 2-27Connelly, SMA William, page 1-25Constitution, 1-50, 2-20, 2-28,Containment, 1-32Contemporary Ops Environment, 1-43,

1-44, 1-45Continental Army, pages 1-1- 1-4Copeland, SMA Silas L., page B-2Corporal Titus, page 1-9

Counseling and Mentorship, 5-1Counseling 5-2

Definition, 5-2Counseling Process, 5-9

Four Stages, 5-9Counseling Session Example, pages

5-13-- 5-15, 5-20Counseling Styles, 5-7

Characteristics, 5-7 (fig 5-1)Courage, 1-57, 3-16, 5-6,Crew Drills, 4-41

DD-Day, 6 June 1944, 1-27Defense Activity for Non-Traditional

Education Support (DANTES),1-71

Deployment, The, page 3-16Developmental Counseling, 5-11--5- 21

Types, 5-11Major Aspects of, fig 5-2Event Oriented, 5-12Counseling For Specific Instances,5-13Action Taken, 5-14Reception and Integration, 5-15Counseling Points, fig 5-3Crisis Counseling, 5-16Referral Counseling, 5-17, 5- 18Promotion Counseling, 5-19Adverse Separation Counseling,5-20

Discipline, 3-33-- 3-38, page 3-15--3-16Douglass, Frederick, page 1-8Drills, 4-38--4-39

Types, 4-39Duda, Staff Sergeant Michael, page 4-15Dunaway, SMA George W., page 3-12Duties of Commissioned Officers, 2-42

(fig 2-5)Duties of NCOs (Von Steuben), 1-4,

2-46 (fig 2-7)Duties of Warrant Officers, 2-46

(fig 2-6)Duties, Responsibility, and Authority,

2-5Duty, 2-6

Types, 2-10Specified, 2-11




Directed, 2-12Implied, 2-13

EEnlisted Retirement, 1-19Education, 1-29, 1-34, 1-59, 1-60, 1-70,

5-8,Equal Employment Opportunity, B-4Equal Opportunity, B-3Essential Soldier Task Proficiency,

pages C-8Event Oriented Counseling, 5-12

Examples, 5-12

FFieldcraft Know, 3-13Field Manual 22-100, page 5-2Field Officer, 1-10First Sergeant Course (FSC), 1-34Floyd, Sergeant Charles, page xiiFreed, MSG Douglas E., page B-6Full Spectrum Operations, 1-42

GGammon, CSM Larry W., page 5-16Gass, Sergeant Patrick, page xiiGates, SMA, Julius W., page 3-18General Military Authority, 2-24Grenada, 1-36Gordon, Master Sergeant Gary I., page

1-18Gulf War, The, 1-37

HHaiti, 1-39Hall, SMA Robert E., page 3-3Hayes, President Rutherford B., page

1-7Hernandez, Corporal Rodolfo P., page

1-25History of the NCO Creed, page F-5Hollingsworth, SGM Randolph S, page


Ia Drang Valley, 1-1

Individual Responsibility, 2-18Individual Training, 4-3Information Environment, 1-46Inspections and Corrections, 2-32-- 2-33

Types, 2-34First Line Leaders, 2-33

Intended and Unintended Consequences,3-39-- 3-42

Internet Resources List, page D-1Institutional Training, 1-59- 1-64Integrated Army, 1-30

JJones, Corporal Sandy E., page 4-6Jordan, Sergeant George, page 1-9

KKidd, SMA Richard A., page 2-7Korea, 1-30Kosovo, 1-40Kuwait, 1-37

LLa Voie, CSM J. F., page 2-19Lang Vei, page 1-15Leader Concerns in Training,

4-33-- 4-34Leader Development Process, 1-59

Three Pillars, 1-59Leader’s Responsibility, 4-5Leader Book, C-1

Example forms, pages C-6-- C-24Leaders’ Role in Training, 4-15-- 4-16

Exchange Information, 4-15Demand Soldiers Achieve TrainingStandards, 4-15Assess the Results in the AAR,4-15Planning, 4-17-- 4-21

Short Range, 4-17Preparation, 4-22-- 4-27Execution, 4-28Standards, 4-32

Leadership, 3-1First Line of, 3-2Learned, 3-4Attributes, 3-6


FM 7-22.7


Be, 3-7-- 3-9Know, 3-10-- 3-19Do 3-20-- 3-32

Leadership Positions, page 2-3Assuming, 2-1, (fig 2-1), 2-3(fig 2-2)

Lever, CSM A. Frank III, pages 4-3,5-16

Lewis and Clark Expedition, page xiiLittle Round Top, 1-1Littrell, CSM (USA Ret) Gary L., pages

ix - xiLowe, Percival, page 1-6Lundy’s Lane, page xii

MMaster Sergeant, 2-62McKinley, President William, page 1-7Medal of Honor, page xiMentorship, 5-33

Defined, 5-33Effective Mentor, 5-34Developmental Relationship, 5-35Development Model (fig 5-4)Sustain Mentorship, 5-37Characteristics, 5-38 (fig 5-5)Of Officers, 5-39Building of the Future, 5-40

Military Life on the Frontier, 1-15Marriages, 1-16Barracks, 1-17Handbooks, 1-17Pay, 1-18

Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, andTime (METT-T), 4-39

Mission Essential Task List (METL),4-3-- 4-6Battle Focus, 4-4Collective Task, 4-3Individual Training, 4-3Leader/Soldier Task Selection,

4-10METL Crosswalk, 4-6METL Integration, 4-7

Platoon, Squad Collective Task,4-8

STP, MTP, SM, 4-12Planning, 4-17-- 4-21

Short Range, 4-17

Long Range, 4-17Near Term Planning, 4-19

Preparation, 4-22-- 4-27Training Assessment, 4-42Training Execution, 4-28Training Meetings, 4-18

Battalion/Company, 4-18Platoon/Squad/Section, 4-19

Training Preparation, 4-22-- 4-24Training Schedules, 4-20

Approval, 4-20Signature, 4-20

Task Approval Matrix, 4-12, (fig 4)Mize, Sergeant Ola L., page 1-14Mock, CSM George D., page 1-29Mogadishu, 1-1, page 1-18Monte Damiano, Italy, 1-27Morale, Welfare, and Recreation

(MWR), page B-17Morrell, SMA Glen E., page 2-7Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement

System (MILES), 4-23


Charge, page viiCreed, Back CoverDuties, 2-46 (fig 2-7)Education, 1-29, 1-34Education System (NCOES), 1-60-- 1-64Evaluation Report (NCOER),5-26- 5-28History, 1-1Induction Ceremony Sample, F-1Manual, 1909, 1-20Mentorship of Officers, 5-39Primary Trainer Responsibility,4-30Professional Development, 1-59Reading List, page E-1Recognition, page 3-14Role in Training, 4-53Transition, page 1-32Vision, page viii

NCO Ranks, 2-57-- 2-70Sergeant Major of the Army ,2-57-- 2-58




Command Sergeant Major andSergeant Major, 2-59-- 2-61First Sergeant and Master Sergeant,2-62-- 2-64Platoon Sergeant and Sergeant FirstClass, 2-65-- 2-67Section, Squad and Team Leaders,2-68-- 2-69

NCO Ranks Insignia, 1-8-- 1-10Modern, 1-21

NCO Support Channel, 2-50-- 2-56In Addition, 2-52Assist Chain of Command, 2-55

NCO’s Make It Happen, 4-29Noncommissioned, Commissioned, and

Warrant Officer Relationship,2-41-- 2-46

Noncommissioned Officer DevelopmentProgram (NCODP), 1-67

OOmaha Beach, 1-1On The Spot Corrections, 2-35

Guidelines, fig 2-3Steps, fig 2-4

On The Spot Inspections, 2-38Steps, 2-38

On The Spot Praise, 2-36Operation

Allied Force, 1-40Anaconda, 1-41Desert Storm, 1-37Enduring Freedom, 1-41Just Cause, 1-36Restore Hope, 1-38Support Hope, 1-38Uphold Democracy, 1-39Urgent Fury, 1-36

Operational Assignments, 1-59Opportunity Training, 4-37Otani, Staff Sergeant Kazuo, page 1-12Outpost Harry, page 1-14

PPanama, 1-36Park, Sergeant, page 2-13Performance and Professional Growth

Counseling, 5-22

Performance, 5-22-- 5-25Professional Growth, 5-29-- 5-32

Platoon Sergeant and Sergeant FirstClass, 2-65-- 2-67

Primary Leadership DevelopmentCourse (PLDC), 1-60

Pre-Combat Checks (PCCs), 2-39Pre-Combat Inspections (PCIs), 2-39Pre-Execution Checks, 2-39Pritchett, CSM Cynthia A., pages 1-4,

5-17Pride, 3-33Professional Development Models

(PDM), 1-71Purple Heart, 1-7Pusan Perimeter, page 1-3Putting It Together, 3-43-- 3-44

QQuality Of Life Programs (QOL), B-11

Army Sponsorship, B-12Better Opportunities For Single

Soldiers (BOSS), B-13American Red Cross, B-14Army Community Service (ACS),

B-15Morale, Welfare, and Recreation

(MWR), B-16Family Readiness Groups (FRG),

B-17Resources, B-17

RRegulations, 1-3, 1-16, 2-29Regulations for the Order and Discipline

of Troops of the United States, 1-3Responsibility, 2-14-- 2-15

Command, 2-16-- 2-17Individual, 2-18

Realism, Training, 4-33Reading List, page E-1

Recommended ProfessionalReading List for NCOs, page E-1

Revolution, 1-3Risk Assessment, 4-35

Assessment Card, pages C-22,C-23

Rissler, Sergeant James R., page xiii


FM 7-22.7


Roberts, Sergeant Christine, page 1-20Rwanda, 1-1, 1-38

SSafety, 4-35Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT),

1-71fSection, Squad and Team Leader,

2-68-- 2- 69Selection of collective Task, 4-6Self-Development, 1-68- 1-69

Education Activities to Support,1-70

Self-awareness, 3-17Self-confidence, 3-16Senior NCO Responsibility in Training,

4-1Serbia, 1-40Sergeant Audie Murphy Club, page 3-14Sergeant First Class, 2-66Sergeant Major, 2-61Sergeant Major of the Army, 1-33,

2-57-- 2-58Sergeant Morales Club, page 3-14Sergeant’s Time Training, 4-35,

A-1-- A-5NCO Responsibilities, A-6-- A-8Do’s and Don’ts, A-9A Technique, A-10-- A-16

STT Books, A-15STT Equipment, A-16STT Timeline, A-17Supervisor’s Sergeant’s Time Book, A-

11Shahi-Kot, page xiiiShinseki, GEN Eric K., pages 3-6, and

A-1Shughart, Sergeant First Class Randall

D., page 1-18Sjogren, Staff Sergeant John, page 1-13Somalia, 1-38Special Mention Positions, 2-47-- 2-49

Platoon Sergeant, 2-47Squad, Section, and Team Leader,2-48

St. Mihiel, 1-1Standard Army Training System

(SATS), C-9Standards in Training, 4-32

Sutherland, CSM Mary E., pages 3-8,4-12

TTactics, Techniques and Procedures

(TTP), 4-39Taliban, 1-41Team Building Stages, 3-31, page 3-13,

(fig 3-2)Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE),

1-71fThree Pillars of NCOPD, The, 1-59Tilley, SMA Jack L., pages viii, 1-22,

2-22,Titus, Musician Corporal Calvin P.,

page 1-9Training, page 4-1

NCO’s Role, 4-1Training Aids, Devices, Simulator and

Simulations (TADSS), 4-23Training Assessment, 4-42Training Meetings, 4-48-- 4-53

Battalion/Companies, 4-47Platoon, 4-48-- 4-51

Training Preparation, 4-21Rehearse, 4-21Review, 4-21

Transition Assistance Office (TAO), B-2

Triple Nickles, (The 555th ParachuteInfantry), page 4-10

Tools, 4-42Troop Leading Procedures, 3-22

Outline, pages C-18-- C-20Tuition Assistance (TA), 1-71e

UUS Army Sergeants Major Course

(USASMC), 1-64

VValley Forge, 1-1Van Autreve, Fourth SMA Leon L. page

2-5Vietnam, 1-32Von Steuben, Baron Friedrich, 1-3,

1-20, 1-35, 5-1, F-10





Walsh, Sergeant Patrick, page 1-11Warrior ethos, 1-58West, Clifford R., pages 2-8, 3-10Williams, CSM Anthony, pages 3-11,5-4

X - Y - ZYugoslavia, 1-40


FM 7-22.7






FM 7-22.7








FM 7-22.7








FM 7-22.7




FM 7-22.7 (TC 22-6)23 DECEMBER 2002

By order of the Secretary of the Army:

ERIC K. SHINSEKI General, United States Army

Chief of Staff


JOEL B. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army



Active Army, Army National Guard, and US Army Reserve: To bedistributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 111058,requirements forFM 7-22.7.


No one is more professional than I. I am aNoncommissioned Officer, a leader of soldiers. As a

noncommissioned officer, I realize that I am a memberof a time honored corps, which is known as “the

Backbone of the Army.” I am proud of the Corps ofNoncommissioned Officers and will at all times

conduct myself so as to bring credit upon the Corps,the military service and my country regardless of the

situation in which I find myself. I will not use my gradeor position to attain pleasure, profit or personal safety.

Competence is my watch-word. My two basicresponsibilities will always be uppermost in my mind –accomplishment of my mission and the welfare of my

soldiers. I will strive to remain technically andtactically proficient. I am aware of my role as a

noncommissioned officer. I will fulfill myresponsibilities inherent in that role. All soldiers areentitled to outstanding leadership; I will provide that

leadership. I know my soldiers and I will always placetheir needs above my own. I will communicate

consistently with my soldiers and never leave themuninformed. I will be fair and impartial whenrecommending both rewards and punishment.

Officers of my unit will have maximum time toaccomplish their duties; they will not have toaccomplish mine. I will earn their respect and

confidence as well as that of my soldiers. I will be loyalto those with whom I serve; seniors, peers and

subordinates alike. I will exercise initiative by takingappropriate action in the absence of orders. I will notcompromise my integrity, nor my moral courage. I willnot forget, nor will I allow my comrades to forget that

we are professionals, Noncommissioned Officers,leaders!

Creed of theNoncommissioned Officer



What are the 5 basic responsibilities of a NCO? ›

While an NCO's job is multifaceted, these are 5 roles that are at the forefront of their jobs. NCOs oversee military training, practical leadership, role modelling, unit standards and mentoring.

What Army regulation covers NCO guide? ›

The NCO Guide (FM 7-22.7) replaces Training Circular 22-6, The Noncommissioned Officer Guide.

How do you write noncommissioned officer? ›

NCO is acceptable on first reference.

What book first spelled out duties of an NCO? ›

In his publication, "Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States," commonly called the "Blue Book," Von Steuben set forth the duties and responsibilities of the NCO ranks at that time.

What are the 6 NCO core competencies? ›

NCO Common Core Competencies.

The six competencies (Leadership, Communications, Readiness, Training Management, Operations, and Program Management) taught in NCO Professional Military Education (PME) are common to all Noncommissioned Officers regardless of Military Occupational Specialty (MOS), rank, or position.

What are the duties of a non-commissioned officer in the Army? ›

The NCOs are in charge of military training, discipline, practical leadership, role modelling, unit standards and mentoring officers, especially juniors.

Where can I find the NCO guide? ›

This publication is available at the Army Publishing Directorate site (, and the Central Army Registry site (

What is the oath of a non commissioned officer? ›

I will strive to remain technically and tactically proficient. I am aware of my role as a noncommissioned officer. I will fulfill my responsibilities inherent in that role. All Soldiers are entitled to outstanding leadership; I will provide that leadership.

What Army regulation covers guidon? ›

Army. As described in Chapter 6 of Army Regulation 840-10, guidons are swallow-tailed marker flags in branch-of-service colors, measuring 20 inches (51 cm) at the hoist by 27 inches (69 cm) at the fly, with the swallow-tail end forked 10 inches (25 cm).

Do I salute an NCO? ›

procedure is the same, except that you don't remove your headgear and you render the salute prescribed for the weapon you are carrying. When a Soldier reports to an NCO, the procedures are the same, except that the two exchange no salutes.

What are the 7 rules of Army writing style? ›

  • 7 Rules of the Army Writing Style. PUT THE MAIN POINT UP FRONT (B-L-U-F), 2. ...
  • THE 15 - 15 - 1 - 2 RULE. Writing should not have more than 15 percent long words. ...
  • Paragraph should not be more than 1-inch deep. Paper should not be over 2 pages long.
  • Paragraphs of SDF.

Can an NCO outrank an officer? ›

All commissioned officers outrank non-commissioned officers (e.g., a sergeant).

How do you memorize NCO Creed Army? ›

A good technique to memorize the NCO Creed is to keep writing it down on a piece of paper until you perfect it and then recite it multiple times daily.

What article is disrespecting an NCO? ›

Article 89 provides protection for commissioned officers, noncommissioned officers, and warrant officers to issue commands necessary for the execution of their duty. Article 89 includes both verbal and physical disrespect. Any of these could also be considered a level of assault.

What rank does NCO start? ›

An Army sergeant, an Air Force staff sergeant, and a Marine corporal are considered NCO ranks. The Navy NCO equivalent, petty officer, is achieved at the rank of petty officer third class. Army: * For rank and precedence within the Army, specialist ranks immediately below corporal.

What are the 5 characteristics of an NCO? ›

NCOs must lead by example and model characteristics of the Army Profession. This competency includes: Leader Development, Counseling, Coaching and Mentoring, the Army Ethic, Army Values, and Character Development.

What is the most important duty that the NCO performs? ›

The two most important NCO responsibilities are: mission accomplishment and Soldiers' welfare.

What are the daily duties of a supply NCO? ›

Supply NCO maintains overall supervision of accountability of unit property, sub-hand receipts, and maintenance program for unit. Duties include: Request, receive, exchange, issue, recover, and turn-in personnel clothing IAW current directives.

What is the code of conduct for NCO? ›

I am proud of the Corps of noncommissioned officers and will at all times conduct myself so as to bring credit upon the Corps, the military service and my country regardless of the situation in which I find myself. I will not use my grade or position to attain pleasure, profit, or personal safety.

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