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Brussels, 13.06. 1997SEC(97) 1203





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The "Green paper on the protection of minors and human dignity in audiovisual andinformation services" I examined and opened to wide-ranging consultation a series

issues relating to the campaign to stop the movement.of illegal content that is offensive tohuman dignity and the protection of minors from access to content which is legal butcould impair their physical, mental or moral development. The Green Paper consideredthese questions .across the full range of audiovisual and information services, fromtelevision to the Internet.

At its meeting of 16 December 1996, the Council of Ministers welcomed the Green Paperand adopted conclusions which provided pointers for the organization of theCommission s work. It asked the Commission to continue working on the Green Paperand to propose further initiatives for the Council meeting (Audiovisual Affairs/Culture)on 30 June 1997, in areas falling within the Community' s jurisdiction.

In accordance with these terms of reference, this document presents the analysis andpmvisional conclusions drawn by the Commission on the basis of its work on the GreenPaper.


Coinciding with the presentation of the Green Paper to the Council meeting on16 December 1996, consultations began among the European circles concerned - theother Union institutions, the Member States and other interested parties:

1.1 Institutional consultations

0 The European Parliament appointed a rapporteur (Mr Whitehead from the Committeeon Culture, Youth, Education and the Media). The European ParliaJ1lent is expected to

deliver its opinion on the Green Paper in July 1997.

. The Economic and Social Committee adopted an opinion on 28 May 1997. As aresponse to these pressing questions, the Economic and Social Committee pr.oposes

setting up a Eur.opean framework consisting .of C.ommunity legislation together withan independent b.ody f.or implementati.on and supervision.

The C.ommittee of the Regi.ons adopted an .opini.on at its plenary sessi.on .on13 March 1997. In the conclusi.on t.o its opinion, the Committee insisted .on the need

for consistency in the legislative instruments and practices to be implemented in theUnion and the Member States. To this end it identified a number of priority measuresand recommended that the Commission continue its activities in a number .of fields -typol.ogy, labelling and educati.on in the media.

COM(96) 483 final, 16. 10. 1996.


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1.2 Consultation of the Member States

The Member States were consulted directly C!n 27 February at a meeting .organized by theCommissi.on. M.ost of the Member States also sent the C.ommissi.on a written c.ontributi.onin resp.onse t.o the Green Paper.

Consultation of other interested parties

Various interested parties showed a keen interest in the issues raised by the Green Paper.Besides informal c.ontacts, formal c.onsultations took place in two ways:

. A consultation meeting was held in Brussels on 4 February 1997, attended by a br.oadrange of representatives of consumers and the industries concerned.

0 The Commissi.on received sixty-five written contributions from the vari.ous sectorsconcerned - the w.orld .of br.oadcasting, program and software edit.orstelecommunicati.ons, commercial communications, consumer electronics, publicinstitutions, users ' groups - and other sections of society.

. Over .one hundred .organizations to.ok part in the consultations either orally or inwriting.

There f.ollows a summary of the comments received during the consultati.on pr.ocess. Alist of written contributi.ons is set out in the Annex.


Points of consensus

C.onsultations on the "Green paper .on the protection of minors and human dignity inaudi.ovisual and inf.ormation services" have paved the way for a Europe-wide consensuson the aims and principle of acti.on to be taken.

General principles

0 Respect for the principles of the protection .of minors and human dignity is a sine quanon f.or the devel.opment of the new services. For operators and users alike, theseservices can .only develop in a harmonious fashion in a clear and stable envir.onment .oflegal certainty and trust. Respect f.or these ethical principles is one of the favourablec.onditions required. It was clear all the c.ontributions, whatever s.ource, thatthe questions .of human dignity and the pr.otection .of min.ors must be discussed andresolved, otherwise a potentially promising development will be held back. Answersare needed urgently.

0 The fundamental democratic principles .of freedom .of expression and respect f.orprivacy, enshrined in Articles 8 and 10 .of the Eur.opean Conventi.on on Human

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Rights 2 must. be observed, and any measure restricting these freedoms must belegitimate, necessary for the aim pursued, and strictly prop.ortionate in the limitati.onsit irnp.oses.

. The consultations c.onfirmed the distinction made in the Green Paper between illegalcontent that is offensive to human dignity .and content that is legal, but liable t.o harm

minors by impairing their physical and/or mental devel.opment. The tw.o problemsrequire a different appr.oach and different soluti.ons.

. A clear consensus emerged on the fact that the European Union has a role to play inthese fields, on which work is in pr.ogress at national level t.o varying differentdegrees.

Legal framework and liability

. There was broad agreement that, strictly speaking, there is no legal vacuum as regardsthe protecti.on .of min.ors and human dignity, n.ot even in .on-line and Internet services.Acc.ording to the principle of territ.orial jurisdiction, the law applies .on the nationalterritory .of the State and hence als.o applies to .on-line services. The. principles .of theprotection .of minors and human dignity are clearly enshrined in international law anddefined in nati.onallaw (ordinary and/.or criminal law).

0 In television, these principles are applied on the basis .of a specific and broadlyapproved regulat.ory framework, which also extends t.o Community level. Howeverwith the arrival of digital technology and new audiovisual services, television ishaving to c.onsider the possibility and relevance of using additi.onal protectionsystems3

In on-line services, however, the main problems stem from the application .of generallaws on the protection of minors and human dignity. It w.ould appear that these laws.need to be clarified and adapted in many cases if tangible results are to be achieved.

. In this context, a Eur.ope-widec.onsensus is beginning t.o emerge .on a blueprint for the

assignment of responsibility to the different operat.ors involved in the c.ommunicati.on

chain. Liability is determined by degrees according to the operator s functi.on(s) and

the extent t.o which he has direct contact with the content:

Full and complete liability of content pr.oviders, with special emphasis .on theireditorial r.ole.

Limited liability of service providers who supply content .originating

elsewhere: they are liable if it is physically possible for them to identify

See also Directive 95/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council of24 October 1995 on theprotection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement ofsuch data, OJ L 281 , 23. 1 Ll995 , p. 31.

Although the "watershed" currently remains the principal tool used by television for protecting

minors, other additional, so"called "parental control" systems are now beLTlg tested: llSe of specialsymbols, V -chip or electronic programme guides, persona! code systems or the grouping ofprogrammes by category of target audience.

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harmful material which it is technically feasible t.o control. This type ofliability is the hardest t.o evaluate.

- In the absence of an accepted classification of operat.ors and functi.ons, thequesti.on of liability for .operat.ors who merely provide access to services .orcommunication netw.orks remains open. However, a maj.ority came out infavour of an absence of liability for these operators, which h.owever

, d.oes n.ot

mean that they have no role t.o play, for example in informing C.onsumers.

e Again with a view to clarification, it was generally agreed that we need to look beyondthe general noti.ons of c.ontent that is harmful t.o min.ors and .offends human dignity andconsider ways ofw.orking out a clearer definition .of these concepts.

Finally; on the question of enf.orcing the law, the debate clearly highlighted the

technical difficulties inv.olved in identifying .operators and users .on networks wherethis proved necessary. Such problems do not call into questi.on the broad consensus onfreedom of expression and the protection of privacy. Users must be able t.o .remainanonym.ous and use pseudonyms, or even encoding. H.owever, there is a need to defineminimum means and appropriate procedures to enable the perpetrators .of punishableoffences to be identified. F.or example, in this c.ontext, a maj.ority .of those consultedfelt that service pr.oviders sh.ould be clearly identified.

The protection of minors

e In the w.orld of televisi.on, the question .of the protecti.on of min.ors has focused .on theuse .of parental c.ontrol systems (electronic pr.ogramme guides, the V-chip, etc.). Theconsultati.ons highlighted three aspects in particular:

Parental control systems must n.ot lead t.o a shift in resp.onsibility for theprotecti.on of minors from broadcasters to parents. They must supplementrather than replace other existing systems.

- Such systems sh.ould be intr.oduced on a v.oluntary basis. Those consultedclearly rejected any statut.ory imp.osition of the anti-vi.olence chip.

There appears t.o be a need to experiment with and evaluate different parentalcontrol systems (effectiveness, reliability, userfriendliness, availability).

0 However, in the case .of .on-line services, the impossibility .of monit.oring all thecontent available .on w.orld netw.orks means that the intr.oduction of parental contr.olsystems (availability of filtering software) is vital for the protecti.on .of min.ors. Butalthough such systems are indispensable, they are not in themselves sufficient.Content and service pr.oviders, particularly c.ommercial operat.ors, could help improvethe protection .of min.ors by ad.opting g.ood practices as regards the identificati.on andpresentati.on of .offending material (warning pages, systems f.or checking the age of theuser, labelling .of content, etc.). For the moment, self-regulation seems the best way t.opromote g.o.od practice, possibly backed up by g.overnment measures.

i!Jj For parental c.ontr.ol devices to be effective, there must be a c.onsistent system forlabelling content, so that it can be filtered by software. A rational policy here would beto aim for the development of a critical D:1aSS .of labelled material. A consensusemerged.on the need to promote the use ofthf' PICS protocol because .of its worldwide

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acceptance. However, the questi.on of how labelling would work in practice, Le. whatkind of inf.ormation would acc.ompany the c.ontent, is still a matter f.or debate alth.oughthe different views expressed seem to converge on the need for two simultaneoustypes .of labelling - descripti.on and evaluation:

the descriptive labelling should contain inf.ormation .on the content thecontent-producer, presented as objectively as possible;

the evaluati.on of content could give greater consideration t.o particularcharacteristics of national .or l.ocal cultures and sh.ould be an easier tool t.o use

(e.g. classification by age group).

.. Inf.ormation, educati.on and awareness-raising measures f.or users, min.ors, parents andteachers are seen as a vital adjunct in .order t.o prom.ote the responsible use .of the newservices. There appear to be three fundamental aspects involved here:

the type .of inf.ormati.on to be c.onveyed, the need to adapt it to different targetgroups and, more generally, s.ome form of permanent assistance f.or parentsand teachers;

the timing .of inf.ormation and awareness-raising measures (e.g. when acust.omer buys a modem .or signs a contract requesting a c.onnecti.on t.o an

.on-line service);

the ch.oice of media - in this context the educational potential of the traditi.onalmedia was universally ackn.owledged.

0 Over and above these preventive and educati.onal measures, there was a strong demandfor positive measures to be taken t.o prom.ote the access of children to the new servicesin public places (sch.ools, libraries, etc.) and t.o enc.ourage high-quality material aimedat minors.

. The c.onsultation highlighted the need for an in-depth analysis of the relati.onship

between children and the media in general terms, not just the issue of pr.otectingminors from c.ontent harmful t.o them.

1.4 Protection of human dignity

0 On national territory, governments have the legal p.owers to punish infringements the law. H.owever, there are problems in identifying, prosecuting and punishingoffenders in relati.on t.o .on-line services. The instruments available t.o g.overnments

c.ould be made more effective through the pooling of experience and inf.ormati.on, the

training of police .officers and the judiciary, and judicial cooperation.

e The diversity .of rules and their interpretation is seen by .operators as an obstacle, as therules applying in the c.ountry where content is br.oadcast .or posted are not necessarilythe same as in the c.ountry where the content is received. Besides the advantages t.o be

gained from agreeing .on a clear and positive definiti.on of illegal content, which couldf.orm the basis for a set .of common Eur.opean values, a certain amount ofappr.oximation .of legislation is als.o desirable.

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Points of divergence

G A c.ommon need has been identified by the c.onsultati.ons on the Green Paper: thedebate going .on within the European C.ommunity .on the new services must givepr.ominence to ethical questions. Apart the p.oints on which consensus wasreached, an analysis .of the c.ontributi.ons reveals an extremely wide divergencebetween Member States in the maturity of the debate itself, the degree t.o which theparties inv.olved have .organized representative structures and the priority .objectives orapproaches ad.opted in response t.o the pr.oblem (regulation, self-regulati.on, etc.

- The maturity of the debate and the level of pr.ogress made is uneven acr.ossEurope, as the geographical origin .of the c.ontributi.ons to the Green Papershows: m.ost of the professi.onals and users wh.o reacted t.o the Green Paper arefrom northern Eur.ope. The sharing .of experiences between Member States was.often cited as an important requirement and an area where the Eur.opean Unioncould pr.ovide added value.

- While s.ome Member States have organizati.onal structures representingindustry that are capable .of designing and implementing self-regulati.oninstruments, in .others, the co.ordinati.on .of the many different players involvedis .still in its infancy.

National responses to the problem have focused on pri.orities which may differin scale: s.ome Member States have concentrated their eff.orts .on an isolatedaspect (e.g. the campaign against child p*rnography); in others priority hasbeen given to the protection ofmin.ors (e.g. vi.olence in the media); while so,mecountries have taken action across the board t.o deal with illegal and harmfulcontent in general.

Similarly, individual countries have adopted different soluti.ons when it c.omesto the measures taken .on the gr.ound: in some Member States the onlyinitiatives have been in the form of self-regulation mechanisms, which aremonitored t.o varying degrees by the public authorities; while in otherslegislati.on has also been adopted.

These differences in the situati.on in individual Member States contrasts with theconsensus that emerged in the consultations. H.owever, this contrast sh.ould n.ot mask the.opp.ortunities which the c.onsensus presents and the dangers inherent in the devel.opment.of divergent appr.oaches:

. If full advantage is taken of the consensus, there can bea quicker and more consistentresponse at Eur.opean level. The new services will then be able t.o devel.op bothnati.onally and across the European Uni.on in a climate of trust.

G H.owever, if there is no coordinati.on, there is a danger that divergences will emergebetween devel.opments in different countries, leading t.o inc.onsistencies at EuropeanUnion level. This might affect the development of transnational services and thesm.o.oth .operation of the fi' .ontier-:tTee area and could undermine the effectiveness .ofnati.onal measures.


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Summary of general principles

After analysing the c.onsultation pr.ocess on the Green Paper, we must n.ow consider thef.ollowing principles:

CID Bef.ore any further acti.on is planned, maximum use must be made .of the vari.ousexisting instruments (legislati.on .or financial assistance) which may help to satisfys.ome of the requirements that have been identified.

. To achieve maximum effect and avoid duplicati.on, there must be close coordinati.onbetween the vari.ous relevant activities being carried .out by the Union in parallel withits work .on the Green Paper4, in particular the f.ollow-up t.o the Commissionc.ommunication .on illegal and harmful content .on the Internet5 and cooperation onjustice and h.ome affairs.

0 The principles .of proporti.onality and subsidiarity must be applied and particularrespect paid t.o the cultural diversity manifested in national and local percepti.ons oftheprotecti.on of minors and human dignity.

In the light of these principles, the results .of the process of consultati.on on the Green

Paper suggest tw.o areas for development at European Uni.on level: the c.oordination ofnational responses, and closer cooperati.on and the po.oling of experience at European andinternational level.

Coordination of national responses and Community objectives

In the light of the broad consensus that emerged in the c.onsultation process and thedifferent views expressed by the Eur.opean Union institutions, Member States and otherinterested parties concerning the European Union .s role in the protection of min.ors and

human dignity in audi.ovisual and inf.ormation services, it is felt that national responsessh.ould be coordinated for the following reas.ons:

09 Many national measures on the pr.otecti.on of minors .and human dignity could be mademuch m.ore effective if they could rely .on co.ordinati.on of national initiatives and ofthe agencies resp.onsible for implementing such measures in each country.

See also the work of the group of European Commissioners on the protection of privacy and personaldata set up by Article 29 of Directive 95/46/Ec on the protection of personal data.

cOM(96) 487 fmal, 16. 10. 1996.

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$ In view of the imp.ortance and difficulty of defining minimum standards atinternational level, a c.omm.on p.olicy framework c.ould enable the Uni.on t.o bring itsfull weight to bear in intemati.onal bodies working on the ethical principles .of theglobal inf.ormation s.ociety, as it would then have demonstrated its ability to reactquickly. The participati.on of institutions and .operat.ors non~member countries inthe c.onsultati.ons on the Green Paper has shown that Eur.ope is seen very much as atesting-ground f.or services which, by their very nature, are transnati.onal. The interestar.oused by a Eur.ope-wide initiative in the ethical field c.onstitutes a real challenge.

III The devel.opment of a co.ordinated appr.oach for the protection of the fundamentalrights inv.olved in' this area at European Uni.on level w.ould help create a fav.ourableenvironment f.or transnati.onal audiovisual and inf.ormati.on services;

. The existence .of a coherent framew.ork w.ould make it easier and quicker f.or theparties concerned to c.ome up with appropriate solutions (go.od practices, technicaldevices), whichc.ould then be applied acr.oss the wh.ole Union.

T.o pave the way f.or these significant advances, the results .of the consultation processsuggest that, in additi.on to restating general principles and objectives for the protection .ofminors and human dignity, practical measures t.o be undertaken at both national andCommunity level sh.ould be agreed, while maintaining en.ough flexibility to take int.oaccount specific nati.onalcharacteristics and rapid developments in audiovisual andinf.ormation services. A non-binding legal instrument may seem appr.opriate at this stage.

The main c.omm.on .objectives t.o be attained by the Eur.opean Uni.on could be thefollowing:

III To promote, in partnership with the public auth.orities and the different partiesconcerned, a framework of self-regulati.on of on-line services for the pr.otection .ofmin.ors and human dignity.

. To encourage experimentation with new meth.ods of protecting minors and inf.ormingconsumers in the w.orld of televisi.on.

. To the access of minors t.o the new services in educational instituti.ons andpublic places.

. To pr.omote high-quality content .and services aimed at young people.

T.o assess the appr.opriateness and effectiveness .of the measures being used to pr.otectmin.ors and human' dignity.

In order t.o attain these .objectives, the Member States must take the initiative in cl.osecooperati.on with the industries and .other parties concerned, particularly in the foll.owingareas:

€I enc.ouraging the participation of all the parties concerned in implementing the strategicframew.ork, including by prom.oting the setting-up of representative structures at thenational level; above all , aU pmiies concerned should participate in defining the rulesof self-regulati.on, in supervising their applicati.on and in the process of .overallevaluation .of the system implemented;

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clarifying and, wherever necessary, adapting existing national legislation .on theprotecti.on .of min.ors and human dignity;

0 in partnership with the public authorities and the parties c.oncerned, defming andchecking the implelIlentati.on of a framew.ork of self-regulati.on .of on-line services forthe pr.otecti.on of minors and human dignity; this framework sh.ould supplement theexisting regulat.ory systems6 and fully respect the P.owers .of legal bodies; thef.ollowing minimum rules were stressed:

special presentation for content that is likely t.o harm rnin.ors (good practices asregards warning pages and age checks);

the labelling of content (which may be by third parties) and the prom.oti.onof filtering systems based on the PICS prot.ocol;

procedures, principles and practical measures t.o be applied in relations betweenoperat.ors and users and the police and courts in order to prevent thedisseminati.on .of illegal c.ontent, and in particular to make it easier t.o identify andprosecute .offenders;

- a centralized system f.or handling users' complaints and identifying illegalc.ontent7

inf.ormation and awareness-raising measures for users t.o enc.ourage responsibleuse of the new services;

pr.ocedures and penalties to be applied when self-regulati.ons are breached.

CD enc.ouraging broadcasting services, particularly new services, to experiment, .on avoluntary basis and ina manner that complements the nati.onal and Communityregulat.ory frameworks g.overning br.oadcasting, with new meth.ods .of protectingmin.ors and inf.orming consumers (use of special symbols, technical systems to helpparental c.ontr.ol, awareness-raising pr.ogrammes, etc.

III carrying.our a comprehensive evaluati.on of the effectiveness' .of the new arrangements

in close c.ooperation with all parties c.oncerned.

In .order to be able t.o implement these actions coherently, it has become clear that thefoll.owing areas will need support the Community:

III fostering cooperation between the parties concerned by netw.orking the nati.onalself-regulation and control bodies;

For example, all questions connected with the application and interpretation .of the relevantCommunity law (especially the Protection of Personal Data Directive) are clearly excluded from thescope ofthe services ' self-regulation frameworks.

If personal data were dealt with in this context, the Protection of Personal Data Directive would apply.


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. providing the approprate framew.ork t.o po.ol experience and step up cooperati.on inorder to strengthen the coherence .of nati.onal action by researching comm.onmethodol.ogies and concepts:

c.ontinuing the w.ork on questi.ons that are crucial f.or developing new audi.ovisual andinformation services but which go beyond the framew.ork of protection of minors andhuman dignity; for example, there needs t.o be a general debate - especially in the light.of judgments now being handed d.own in the c.ourts of certain Member States - .on theresponsibility of the vari.ous operators.

Closer cooperation and the pooling of experience at European andinternational level

Protection methods and practical s.oluti.ons will emerge from various experimentsc.onducted at local or national level. The European Union has been asked t.o provideappropriate frameworks not.only f.or Community purposes but als.o t.o step up cooperati.onand the p.ooling of experience at Eur.opean and intemationallevel, notably in the c.ontextof cooperation in the field .of justice and h.ome affairs.

These break d.own into four areas:

Judicial and police cooperation

Besides the exchange of informati.on between the relevant auth.orities in theMember States, practical measures could be envisaged within the framework of themechanisms laid down in Article K of the Treaty on Eur.opean Union, such astraining f.or pr.ofessi.onals in the characteristics of the new services and co.operationin identifying illegal content and in pr.osecuting authors.

Furthermore, w.ork sh.ould be to establish a common body of rules on c.ontentthat offends human dignity by conducting a comparative anal:lsis of Member Stateslegislation and its enf.orcement by the courts. If appr.opriate, this study c.ould be usedlater as a basis f.or the approximation of legislation in line with joint acti.ons ad.optedin the campaign against child p*rnography.

Development of relations between children and the media

As well as being protected, children and y.oung pe.ople must be given their rightfulplace within the information s.ociety. To achieve this, the f.oll.owing two aims mustbe achieved:

t.o exploit the potential .of the media to help eaucate tomorrow s citizens;

t.o help t.omorr.ow s citizens understand the media and use them responsibly.

S.omething that emergedftom the consultati.on process was that the European Uni.onhas a fundamental role to play in relations between children and the media, bydevel.oping tw.o c.omplementary areas:

devel.opment and utilizati.on .of European research through the f.ollO\JVing: .

circulati.on of information and c.ol1lparison of results between researchers;


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support for transnati.onal netw.orks of researchers undertaking jointresearch projects of European interest;

use of the results in other interested milieux (educators, mediaprofessi.onals, media regulation b.odies, etc.

launching of specific .studies needed for the c.ontinuati.on .of Communitypolicies in this field, especially in terms of assessing practical projects

(technical arrangements, educati.on in the media, awareness-raisingcampaigns, etc.

inf.ormation, m.obilizati.on and c.ooperation .of the parties ' c.oncerned with a view t.odeveloping the partnership between public auth.orities, distributors, parentseducat.ors, researchers and child experts by undertaking the f.oll.owing w.ork: the circulation of informati.on between the vari.ous pr.ofessi.onalmilieux and ass.ociati.ons c.oncerned:

.organizing or supporting the organization of Eur.opean conferences (bothsect.oral and transsect.oral) on topics of common interest;

setting up and supporting inter-professi.onal networks capable .of defming,implementing and evaluating pil.ot schemes in education in the visualimage and mastery of new c.ommunication t.o.ols, particular attentionbeing given to exploiting all nati.onal and l.ocal educati.onal and culturalstructures;

International cooperation

Th.ose c.onsuted stressed that, besides taking part in the work in progress in variousinternati.onal forums (OECD, C.ouncil .of Eur.ope, ITU), the Eur.opean Union sh.ouldtry t.o stimulate discussi.on and the pooling of experience between .operat.ors and

.other parties in the European Union and their c.ounterparts in the rest of the w.orld,thr.ough informal meetings.

3.4 Evaluation and monitoring

In-depth evaluati.on .of the results obtained by implementing the initiativesenvisaged, and constant monitoring of a sector in rapid evolution, are essential. Theconsultati.on process highlighted a dual need:

coordinated evaluation .of the systems implemented at nati.onallevel;

analysis of the future implicati.ons of new audiovisual and informati.on servicesf.or the pr.otecti.on .of minors and human dignity.


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List of written contributions

1) Member States


2) Broadcasting/audiovisual media

Associati.on des televisions commerciales europeennesCanal plusCLT-UFADFIEurocinemaFSFIndependent Televisi.on Ass.ociati.onMediasetM.otion Picture Ass.ociati.onMTVTV5Union europeenne de Radi.o-televisi.onVerband Privater Rundfunk Telek.ommunikati.onWDRZDF and ARD


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3) Publishing and software

BertelsmannENPAMicros.oftThe Newspaper Society

4) Telecommunications and the Internet

British Telec.omETNOFrance Telec.omInternati.onal C.ommunicati.ons ltalia

Telia Inf.omedia c.ontent centerW.orld

5) Commercial communications

American Advertisers Federati.on

The Advertising Ass.ociati.onEur.opean Association of Advertising AgenciesInternational Advertising Ass.ociati.onLeo Burnett WorldwideWorld Federati.on .of Advertisers

6) Consumer electronics

Philips c.onsumer electronics

7) Institutions

Athens Municipal AuthorityAustralian Br.oadcasting AuthorityBerliner DatenschutzbeauftragterCentre for Criminal Justice StudiesConseil superieur de l' audi.ovisuelForbrukerombudetICSTISLegal Advisory B.oard

Office federal de la communicationThe P.ornography and Vi.olence Research TrustStanding Committee .of Police in Europe


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8) Associations (users, civil society, professionals)

ANARAssociation eur.opeenne des l.oteries et l.ot.os d' EtatAss.ociazione italiana asc.oltatori radi.o e televisi.oneAss.ociation des utilisateurs d' InternetBAJThe Catholic Union of Great BritainChildnet Intemati.onalChristian Action Research & EducationEuropean Uni.on Data Protection C.ommissi.onersFederation eur.opeenne du marketing directLiberties


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